Abstracts and Communications
Session 1 : Indicators, needs and improvements.Risks of Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management, A. Dohrenbusch, Germany
Session 2 : Indicators for biodiversity assessment.
Tuesday December 12th
Session 3 : Indicators for global carbon cycle and Kyoto protocols.
Session 4 : Indicators for socio economic functions
Wednesday December 13th
Session 5 : Indicators for ecosystem health
Session 6 : Indicators for protective functionsKeynote : Inazio Martinez de Araño
Session 1 : Indicators, needs and improvements.
Risks of Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management
Institute of Silviculture, University of Goettingen, Germany
Sustainable forest management (SFM) has been, since the UNCED in Rio in 1992, a leading concept in international deliberations and work. "Sustainability" as a complex idea involving economic, environmental and social factors. They believe that in order to work effectively toward this goal, the nation’s forestry leaders must, first, articulate a national policy of sustainable forest management; second, revise and integrate national strategic direction to support this policy; and third, build an integrated and accessible data base to measure current forest conditions as well as long-term trends. During the last years, many sets of criteria and indicators (C&I) of sustainable forest management have been developed around the world. Research institutes, universities and government research groups are investigating social, economic and biophysical criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management at the international, national and regional level. The Montreal Process envisioned criteria as a large scale reflection of public values. Indicators would then provide the means for measuring these forest conditions and for tracking subsequent changes. The indicators are intended to be flexible elements of resource monitoring that can be adjusted to provide the most accurate assessment of changing environmental, economic and social conditions. Mainly politicians have high expectations on the use of the criteria and indicators for sustainable management. This contribution is a critical reflection on the problems of the large number of indicators that has been developed for sustainable forest management in the recent past.See the presentation
Incorporating disturbances in the pan-European process of implementing sustainable forest management
.Environmental Science Section, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Sweden
French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA)Mediterranean Forest Research Unit (URFM), Team of Forest Fire Prevention (PIF), INRA Site Agroparc, Domaine Saint Paul, France
In recent years there has occurred a shift in forest management from a more static and single-goal oriented view of forests (as the provider of wood resources) to a more dynamic multiple-goal oriented one where several different functions are appreciated. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) tries to incorporate theses multiple objectives and to create management goals that are in line with these. In order to assess how these management goals are being met a set of criteria and indicators have been developed by the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE). The indicators are used in order to see how sustainable the management of the forest is. SFM is a great challenge to forest managers of today with increasing demands on the functions that forests should perform. The challenge does not become any less in the face of a likely changing climate that not only will see changes in average meteorological parameters but also in the frequency and amplitude of natural disturbance. In this paper we assess how well the criteria and indicators used by the MCPFE are adapted for incorporating questions about disturbance on the forests. This is done by investigating the relationship between the indicators and what effect different types of disturbances might have on the SFM system. For illustrative purposes the effects of a major disturbance on a European forest (the 2005 storm in Sweden) on the MCPFE criteria and indicators are studied.See the presentation
FORSEE project : A network of pilot zones to assess and improve Indicator for Sustainable forest management
Orazio, IEFC, France
http://www.iefc.net/index.php?affiche_page=projet_forseeSee the presentation
Getting to grips with environmental monitoring, a case study from Sappi Forests
SHEQ Manager, Sappi Forests (Pty) Ltd.
the advent of certification, plantation companies are being expected
to undertake a wide range of monitoring activities to evaluate the
impact of their activities on the natural environment. Certified
plantations have no option but to initiate monitoring programs but
how can companies plan, coordinate and manage monitoring information
in a way that not only meets external requirements but adds value to
their business and provides sound management information? In South
Africa, we have been grappling with these issues for a number of
years and have implemented a “State of the
reporting approach to monitoring and reporting that may assist other
plantation managers grappling with the same issues. The building
blocks of this approach include:
1. A standardized reporting framework: Results of monitoring activities are typically presented in a variety of forms that are difficult to interpret and understand. We have adopted an approach that classifies all results into health classes that can be easily understood by technical and field staff alike.
2. Customized monitoring protocols: Where available, generic monitoring protocols have been customized to conform to specific plantation requirements. New monitoring protocols have also been developed for habitats where no tools were available. Where possible, these evaluations are developed to identify causes rather than providing specific biological information.
3. Database for capturing and storing information: A central storage facility is essential for maintaining the numerous monitoring records generated for a wide range of sites over different periods. We have developed a database for capturing and storing monitoring results, photos and maps which can be used to generate customized site reports on request. Export functionalities also enable data to be extracted to produce useful graphs to compare results across different FMU’s and over different periods.
4. Individual site reports for each FMU: Comprehensive reports are generated for each FMU. This pulls all monitoring results together into a user-friendly document which provides a holistic picture for the entire plantation. Practical management interventions are also identified for action at the FMU level. This provides plantation managers with a tangible document that can be used to manage appropriate interventions.
Le Bilan patrimonial des forêts domaniales”, A comprehensive assessment of the state of French government-owned forests
by the Office
National des Forêts; project chief:J.
1. Research and Development Department, Office National des Forêts, France
and objectives of the assessment
Formerly owned by the church or monarchy, the French government forests represent a valuable national heritage. They consist of 1,426 forests covering 1,699,000 hectares, that is 3% of the French metropolitan area. In 2002, the French government requested that the Office National des Forêts (ONF) proceed with the first ever comprehensive assessment of the state of its forests. This review was also meant to provide:
practical terms the assessment was based on covering 4
habitats (10); socio-cultural
tourism management (5); risks
to and health
of the forest (5). Each indicator is designed to make an objective
and neutral inventory
of a specific issue. The indicators as
whole seek to give a balanced
and complete overview
government forests, taking into account their economic, ecological
and social diversity. The results are given on three
national, bio-geographical and regional.
study, to be updated every
(about 300 pages). The project benefited from
numerous internal and external contributions, including the
participation of the ONF’s Scientific Committee and
consultations with the stakeholders in the timber industry,
environmental protection and the social functions of the forest.
Utility and limitations of the results
Certain outcomes can be used to monitor or plan forest management: for example, contrasting results at different times; geographical variation; comparison between types of forests. However, the structure of the project presents several limitations, notably:
The presentation will focus on these limitations, illustrating them with concrete examples chosen from among the 30 indicators. Some suggestions for future changes will be made.See the presentation
SFM Indicators in Sustainability Impact Assessment of forestry wood chain
Carnus and Mikael
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Forestry Wood Research site , Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France
idea of indicators in relation to sustainability was formally taken
up by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
(UNCED) held in Rio, in
June 1992. In
its Agenda 21, it was agreed to
of sustainable development in order to provide solid bases for
decision-making at all levels and to contribute to the
self-regulating sustainability of integrated environment and
Sustainable development indicators serve as instruments for measuring progress towards the reaching of the goal of sustainable development. Many definitions for indicators are available. The six main functions for indicators that are important for their application include reporting, communication, forecasting, focusing, political control, and check for effectiveness. In the pan European process for Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), an indicator is a quantitative or qualitative parameter which can be assessed in relation to a criterion; the indicators show changes over time for each criterion and demonstrate the progress made towards its specified objective. (MCPFE).
The indicators for Sustainable Forest Management need to be consistent with other relevant existing sustainability indicator frameworks with respect to themes and issues covered. Estimates confined only to forest sector are of limited use for policy-makers at higher levels. Both sector-specific and general frameworks have to be considered when improving SFM indicators. For MCPFE indicators, the main attention needs to be paid to consistency and articulation with: existing general European frameworks such as EU sustainability impact assessment (SIA) guidelines, the Sustainable Development Indicators of the European Union (SDI-Eurostat) or the European Union Rural Indicators (PAIS); and specific sectoral or cross-sectoral frameworks such as those under development in 6 FP for quantitative SIA of forestry-wood chains (Eforwood integrated project) and of land-use changes (Sensor integrated project).
Session 2 : Indicators for biodiversity assessment
On the use of Birds as indicators for forest sustainable management in Lousã, Central Portugal.
Morgado and S. Dias, Centro
de Ecologia Aplicada
Prof. Baeta Neves, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisbon, Portugal
relationships of birds with different forest types and the influence
of silviculture practices on bird community structure and function
are well documented, suggesting the use of birds as biodiversity
indicators for forest sustainable management. Within the scope of the
FORSEE project we investigated this possibility using the
pilot zone (Central Portugal) as study site. Cultivated forests
occupy nearly 60% of this area. Maritime pine Pinus pinaster
and Eucalyptus sp. are the dominant forest species
about 67% and 24% of total forested area, while the remaining species
(e.g. chestnut Castanea sativa,
cork oak Quercus
suber, common oak Quercus robur) are
Sampling was conducted on 44 plots representing four forest types -
pure maritime pine, pure eucalyptus, pure other species (chestnut and
oak stands) and mixed forests - and a shrub class representing an
intermediate stage of forest succession. Birds were sampled during
the Spring of 2005 using 10 min. point counts, with the distance
limits corresponding to patch boundaries. Each plot was visited twice
during the breeding season, and the higher values of bird richness
(expressed as the number of species per plot) and abundance
(expressed as the number of pairs per plot) of the two visits were
used. A total of 43 bird species were recorded during fieldwork. Wren
(78%) and blackcap
(65%) were the most frequent species. The results from a
correspondence analysis (species vs. sites matrix)
stratification of the bird community across a gradient of vegetation
structural complexity from shrubs to forest, being less clear the
differences in terms of species composition between the different
forest types. Richness, abundance and diversity (Shannon
index) varied significantly across
forest types considered (Kruskal Wallis [4,44]=34,57; 33,64; 34,49;
p<0,001), being lower in eucalyptus and progressively higher in
the direction: shrub – maritime pine – mixed forest
The results obtained so far suggest that bird community parameters are strongly conditioned by forest type, which is in fact a primary management option. Therefore further investigation on the use of birds as indicators of forest sustainable management in the area should be set out within the forest type level or at least for eucalyptus vs. other species. The integration of abiotic factors and management characteristics of each forest type in subsequent analyses will be presented.
Evaluating trends in structural diversity of forest ecosystems – a case study with data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory
Böhl and E. Kaufmann
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
services provided by forest ecosystems play an increasingly important
role for society and forest management. One can follow this process
on a national and international level. In Switzerland
Federal Office for the Environment formulated that the focus of
forest politics in the future should be on stable protection forests
and on the conservation of biodiversity. On an international level,
the Ministerial Conference on the protection of forests in Europe
developed criteria for sustainable
management. Among these are the maintenance, conservation and
appropriate enhancement of biological diversity in forest ecosystems.
Ecologists attempt to inventory biodiversity and to document changes. Therefore monitoring instruments must be developed and data is needed to distinguish whether forest ecosystems are gaining or loosing biodiversity. Since changes in undisturbed forest ecosystems happen rather slowly, it can be assumed that it would take many years to collect specific data to answer questions concerning trends in biodiversity. However data from National Forest inventories (NFI) is already available for most European countries. Most NFI’s were set up in the eighties and mainly designed for volume estimation. Now the question arise: Is it possible to use this data to evaluate trends of biodiversity in forest ecosystems? If this attempt is successful the information can be delivered in a cost effective way through already existing data. Another benefit of this strategy is that earlier assessments can be taken into account, and trends in biodiversity can be detected over the past decades.
We evaluate trends in three steps. Firstly we define structural diversity, i.e. a combination of species and diameter information, as an indicator of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. In a second step we identify and analyse a suitable index - an extension of the Shannon-Index - that can be estimated using NFI data. In the last step we evaluate a possible trend in structural diversity with the help of a statistical analysis. We applied the method in two study regions using data of the Swiss NFI and found significantly higher index values over three inventory occasions. The question following our result is now: Is the detected trend relevant for ecologists and forest politics?
Test of biodiversity and forest structure indicators, in Council Lousã forests, Centre Portugal.
Departamento Florestal, Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, 03040-316 Bencanta, Coimbra, Portugal
Corresponding author, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Forests in Lousã Council are dominated by private owners. Forty percent approximately are managed by Portuguese forest service. In twenty century, this public Institution planted extended areas with conifer and native broadleaf species. Therefore, in this Council exists since fast-growing species to species with conservation value. Forests in Lousã Council are particularly important due to its economical, social and conservation functions. The aim of this study is to evaluate biodiversity and structure indicators in these forests, from data that could be recorded in a conventional forest inventory. To fulfil our objectives, biodiversity and structures are compared among stands, to achieve this analyse, stands are divided in strata: herbs, shrubs and trees. We compute different known Alfa a (Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson’s reciprocal index, Hill’s N1 index, Pielou’s J’, Alatalo’s F, etc) and Beta b (Whittaker's Index) biodiversity index. Are analysed some indices for each strata to evaluate some structural indicators and compare vertical (Species profile index, tree strata dominance index) and horizontal (Standard deviation of dbh) structure as well. A cluster analysis is performed to find similarities or dissimilarities among stands. Finally biodiversity was related with landscape metrics.See the presentation
Towards indirect, management oriented indicators for biodiversity in plantation forests
Van Halder, et al., INRA, FranceSee the presentation
Testing richness and diversity indexes and vascular plants assemblages as biodiversity indicators
J1, Hervé, J2,
Laboratorio de Entomología y Patología Forestal, ETSIIAA. Univ. de Valladolid.Palencia, Spain. E-mail: email@example.com.
2. UMR 1202 BIOGECO, INRA. CESTAS Cedex, France.
the framework of the FORSEE project, Castile
Leon region assessed
indicators, among others vascular plants. This study was principally
focused on poplar plantations, experimental design on poplar
plantations was factorial with three factors, age (young and adult
stands), quality site (poor and rich) and management (harrowed or not
harrowed), that is to say eight treatment with four replicates each
one. Besides, for the purpose of comparing the vascular diversity
among poplar plantations and others forest types, were chosen in the
same pilot zone four oak stands, four pine plantations stands and 3
riparian forest stands.
A total of 192 species were identified, particularly 137 on the 32 poplar plantations (eight treatments), 32 on pine plantations, 43 on oaks and 35 on riparian forest.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the age and management factors influenced in the richness index, adult and management stands gave fewer index values than young and not management stands, respectively (p<0.01). On the other hand, pine plantations showed fewer richness index values than young and not management poplar stands (p<0.01), although no significant differences were observed between oak and riparian forest. The same analysis were carried out using Shannon and Evenness index as dependent variables, however none different among treatment and forest types were showed.
Correspondence analyses (CA) were used to detect vascular plants assemblages and their indicator species. So, were clearly differentiated three groups of stands, the first was consisting of riparian stands with some indicator species connected to moist condition (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Galium palustre, Geranium robertianum and Ribes rubrum). The second group consisted on oak and pine stands with other indicator species (Cytisus scoparius, Cruciata laevipes, Erica cinerea and Clinopodium vulgare) and a third group formed of poplar stands. Other CA from only poplar stands was carried out to assess the effect of the factors on the vascular plant assemblages, so several associations were detected. On the one hand, on rich stands two assemblages were observed according to age, so in young stands the indicator species are more closely related with high nitrogen levels (Hordeum murinum, Lolium rigidum and Cirsium arvense) whereas in adult stands the indicator species showed high affinity with moist soils (Phleum pratense, Taraxacum gr. officinale and Trifolium repens). On the other hand, in adult stands were noticed two assemblages according to quality site, in poor stands the indicator species were associated to sandy and cultivated soils (Taeniatherum caput-medusae, Vulpia myuros and Hypochoeris radicata), whereas in rich stands the indicator species are closer under wet conditions (Phleum pratense, and Trifolium repens). Strangely, management factor failed to show different assemblages.
These results seem to point out that only richness and diversity indexes shouldn’t be used as biodiversity indicators, since these indexes don’t take into account the species assemblages, but only the number and cover of them. This way is proposed to use these indexes together with indicator species. Furthermore, the search for indicator species should be carried out taking into account that some factors, as age and site, could influence in the result.
Dead-wood attributes as biodiversity indicators in plantation forests
Brin, A et al.See the presentation
The influence of stand and landscape composition in the diversity of carabid assemblages in non-native plantations and native forests in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)
Adoración Martínez, Anais Michelena, Alejandro Cantero, Miren Onaindia y Arturo Goldarazena
Diversity of carabid communities and their response to stand and landscape variables were analysed and compared between non-native pine plantations and native atlantic forest stands along the Ibaizabal river in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Carabid beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping in 64 stands that differ in landscape structure and composition during summer, autumn and spring 2005-2006. Other approach was trying to identify species that characterize the different forest habitats (indicator species) using the indicator value (IndVal).A total of 13741 individuals of 34 different carabid species were identified. The stand with highest species richness, a P.radiata plantation, had a total number of 13 species while in a grazed young Eucalyptus plantation there were not found any species.Carabus was find to be the genus with more species number (9), followed by Harpalus and Amara represented by 3 species. The species with the highest number of individuals were Carabus nemoralis, Steropus gallega and Abax parallelepipedus. The number of individuals belonging to these three species represented more than the 60% of the total captures.
Landscape metrics for characterization of forest landscapes in a sustainable management framework: Potential application and avoidance of misuse
P. Álvarez-Álvarez1, F.
A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez1, R.
1. Department of Vegetal Production, University of Santiago de Compostela
2. LaboraTe, Department of Forestal Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela
use of landscape indices for the study of forest landscapes is
potentially useful in sustainable forest management. Application of
the indices involves the analysis and correct interpretation of the
results obtained and the detection of relationships between such
results and other factors that are important in sustainable
management. These procedures provide a great potential for the
integration of relevant information in multifunctional forest
practices, with special focus on biodiversity.
Nevertheless, in order to avoid inadequate results, it is necessary to consider factors relative to the indices themselves, and to the cartographic information analyzed. Especially important among these factors are the use of a correct reference scale for data collection and application of the indices.
The present study involved the application of several landscape indices recommended in the FORSEE PROYECT (patch number, mean area, edge density, area weighted shape index, Shannon diversity and evenness indices, and Euclidean nearest neighbour), by varying fundamental components of the scale (resolution and extension) and using different cartographical sources (National Forest Map and a map obtained by interpretation of aerial photography). The geographical area used for the calculations included the pilot zone of the FORSEE PROJECT, the municipalities making it up, and buffer zones around inventory plots from which the data were collected. The spatial resolution was 10x10m pixel size for the first area, and 1x1m for the latter. The results were later compared with the inventory data (biomass, dead wood, specific diversity, etc.) using multivariate statistical analyses (regression, CART…).
The analysis of results allowed evaluation of the potential of forest characterization aimed at sustainable management, by the detection of variables of interest (fragmentation, heterogeneity, connectivity), and of their relationships with other indicators. Nevertheless, there is a possibility of incurring diverse types of errors, due to the use of inadequate aggregation methods, or to the inadequacy of the indices. Some ways of avoiding such errors are suggested.
Landscape metrics as surrogates for bird assemblages in biodiversity indicators
J1, Hervé, J2,
1. Laboratorio de Entomología y Patología Forestal, ETSIIAA. Univ. de Valladolid.Palencia, Spain. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2. UMR 1202 BIOGECO, INRA. CESTAS Cedex, France.
of birds as biodiversity indicators is very well-documented, however
in practice the application of bird richness or diversity indexes are
often impossible to monitor by managers. Because its demand a strong
spending of recourses, not only economic but also technical. For this
reason, it is necessary that researches provide managers of effective
and feasible tools to assess biodiversity, of which they can obtain
easy management rules. So, we analyzed the usefulness of landscape
metrics as surrogate for bird assemblages in biodiversity indicators.
Our study was focused on 34 poplar stands localized in river Carrion basin (Castile and Leon, Spain). A total of 74 bird species were recorded, of which 53 were used in analysis. Bird richness is correlated with some landscape metrics: (a) edge density of hedgerows; (b) large patch index; (c) number of patches of adult poplar plantations (r2 = 0.55, p<0.0001). So, an increasing edge density of hedgerows and numbers of patches of adult poplar benefit to bird richness, whereas high large patch index values indicate less bird richness. These results seem to validate the hypothesis that landscape metrics could be used as biodiversity indicators.
However, when the effect of landscape metrics to species level was analyzed, several bird assemblages that showed affinity with different landscape metrics were noted; proximity to pine plantations or urban areas, edge density of hedgerows, adult and young poplar plantations area, etc. Therefore, it would be necessary to fix the aims of sustainable forest management; either to achieve maximum species richness or to benefit some bird assemblages due to their high ecological value.
Session 3 : Indicators for global carbon cycle and Kyoto protocols.
Estimation of carbon sequestration by Pinus pinaster Aiton and Eucalytpus globulus Labill. stands in the FORSEE pilot region “Pinhal Interior Norte” for the period 1990-2005
Sónia Faias1, José Borges1,
Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Lisboa, PORTUGAL
The evaluation of the contribution of forests to climate change mitigation through the carbon cycle is of utmost importance due to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. From a research standpoint two views can be considered: i) how to evaluate the carbon balance of a particular forest well defined in space; ii) how to use the existing knowledge to provide estimations of carbon balance at country level. The last poses several problems, namely The objective of the present presentation is to discuss the possibility to use national or regional forest inventory data in a way to provide good estimations of carbon balance over time at region level. The proposed methodologies will be tested to estimate carbon sequestered over time for the period 1990-2005 by Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster stands of the “Pinhal Interior Norte” region.See the presentation
Analysis of the BEFs used until 2005 in the Portuguese National Reports of emissions and removals for the LULUCF
Sónia P. Faias1
1 Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Lisboa, PORTUGAL
2 Escola Superior Agrária, Departamento Florestal, Coimbra, PORTUGAL
The Portuguese National Reports of emissions and removals of CO2 and non-CO2 for the Land-Use, Land-use Change and Forestry sector (PNR-LULUCF) has been based on a set of biomass expansion factors that were estimated on the basis of published NFI data. Since then several studies have been made in order to develop allometric equations for the most important forest species in the country. The objective of this presentation is to use the most recent allometric equations for each species in order to estimate stand volume and biomass for a large set of plots representative of different regions, sites and stages of stand development. Biomass expansion factors were computed for each plot and its dependence on site and stand variables was studied. An analysis of the results of this study supports a critical analysis of the biomass expansion factors that have been used before. As a final consequence of the study, a new methodology to be used in future PNR-LULUCF is proposed.
Evaluating carbon stock in the Maritime pine stand biomass: region-wide application
Antoine Colin (2), Rémi Teissier du Cros (3),
Annabel Porté (1), Denis Loustau (1)
(1) INRA, Research Unit EPHYSE – 69 route d’Arcachon, 33612 Cestas cedex, France
(2) IFN – Development department – Château des Barres, 45290 Nogent-sur-Vernisson, France
(3) IFN – Bordeaux office - 62 rue de Laseppe, 33000 Bordeaux, France
contribution to the global carbon cycle and their diminishing impact
on human-induced climate change were identified in the early 1990s
and were partially considered as part of efforts to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions with the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. This recognition of
forests’ roles in carbon storage has been accompanied by
requests for methodologies that could be used to assess the amounts
of carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems so as to be able to draw
up periodic reports in the framework of several international
commitments (UNFCC, Kyoto Protocol). The Forest-Wood sector in the
Aquitaine region of France also contributes to the carbon cycle, both
via the functioning of in situ forests and via the production of
wood-based goods and energy. The issue of evaluating and monitoring
carbon stock is therefore of interest from both a scientific and
There are various methods for assessing carbon stock in the aerial biomass of Maritime pine-based ecosystems and these methods are more or less valid depending on the spatial scales. In this presentation, we will examine each of these methods and apply one of them on a region-wide level.
Testing of different dead wood protocols and construction of tools allowing the FrenchNational Forest nventory to choose and dimension its new dead wood protocol
Sandra Lopez, Rémi Teissier du Cros, Thierry Bélouard, Inventaire forestier national, Bordeaux, France
The French NFI doesn’t properly inventory dead wood volume into each category. An appropriate dead wood protocol is necessary to fill in carbon storage or biodiversity indicators. The objective of this study was: 1) to determine which protocol is most appropriate for the French NFI; and 2) to provide tools for protocol dimensioning depending on statistic precision and the cost of measurements. A bibliographic search steered us toward line intersect sampling (LIS) and plot sampling. In addition, we used the results of 2 recent projects (BIOSOIL and FORSEE) to build a field test protocol combining the different methodologies. We measured 31 plots under different stand conditions (forest types and dead wood volume). The first results showed that LIS is not statistically more accurate than plot sampling but costs less. Using a resampling analysis we increased the data in order to have the widest possible range of values. We calculated the percentage of volume lost depending on the minimum inventorying diameter. Variance estimations showed that it is more useful to inventory a large number of plots with shorter transect.See the presentation
Determining the aerial biomass of the adult Maritime pine stand understorey: contribution to the quantification of forest carbon stock using cover-based indicators
Porté (1), Raphaël Dulhoste (1), Sandra Lopez (1),
Bosc (1), Céline Meredieu (1), Rémi Teissier du
Trichet (1), Frédéric Bernier (4) et Denis
(1) INRA Research Unit EPHYSE – 69 route d’Arcachon, 33612 Cestas cedex, France
Tel. +33 (0)5 57 12 28 95 – Fax. +33 (0)5 56 68 05 46 - E-mail: email@example.com
(2) IFN – 62 rue de Laseppe, 33000 Bordeaux, France
(3) INRA Research Unit EPHYSE – 71 avenue Edouard Bourlaux BP81, 33883 Villenave d’Ornon cedex, France
(4) INRA L’Hermitage Experimental Unit– 69 route d’Arcachon, 33612 Cestas cedex, France
Destructive understorey biomass measures have been carried out over a series of meso-hygrophilous, mesophilic and dry Maritime pine stands. We have estimated the carbon stock in this forest sector to be at 1.75 tC ha-1, on average. Significant variability exists resulting from stational conditions. Moreover, we have put together an understorey volume index that may be used as a carbon stock indicator in the aerial biomass of the understorey. This index is calculated based on ratings related to cover per species and to average heights. Cover per species is traditionally performed by the French National Forest Inventory (NFI) at its survey points. We compared this index to the biomass data collected during this study; significant correlations were highlighted for herbs, ferns and moss. It would be useful to adapt the method by examining each species to improve the correlation for ligneous species.See the presentation
Relationships between decay classes, density, and carbon nitrogen content in Fagus Sulvatica dead wood
Bosco Imbert1, Carmen Traver2
1 Departamento de Ciencias del Medio Natural, Universidad Pública de Navarra
2 Gestión Ambiental, Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, S.A.
wood serves many key functions in forest ecosystems. It provides
habitat for many species of microorganisms, invertebrates and
vertebrates, and reduces erosion. Additionally, it is a source of
energy and also constitutes one of the main carbon sink components in
Due to the recognition of dead wood functions in forest ecosystems, several researchers have focused on the development of a correct methodology to assess dead wood quantity in forest stands. However, few papers have been published about the relationships between decay classes, density, and carbon and nitrogen content in dead wood. This type of information is essential for a correct assessment of the dead wood carbon and nitrogen content.
Therefore, this research deals with the study of the relationships between decay classes, density, and carbon and nitrogen content in Fagus sylvatica dead wood from the Pyrennees of Navarre.
Comparative analysis between the tree biomass estimation for Fagus Sylvatica from alometric equations and biomass factors (BEFs) in Navarra
Traver1, Irantzu Primicia1,
1 Gestión Ambiental, Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, S.A.
2 Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio y Vivienda, Gobierno de Navarra
the last decade, many studies have focussed on the estimation of
carbon content in different tree species, due to the world-wide
importance given to the assessment of greenhouse gases. Its main
target has been the determination of a reliable methodology to
estimate the carbon sequestration. Two types of methodologies have
been mainly investigated: Biomass Alometric Equations and Biomass
Expansion Factors (BEFs).
Both methodologies are mainly aimed at its direct application to the Forest Inventory and National Forest Inventory data, so the different countries are able to elaborate the Annual Greenhouse Gas Inventory established in Council Decision 99/296/EC.
In this study, Alometric Equations have been developed to assess the aboveground and belowground biomass of Fagus sylvatica from a destructive inventory of a tree sample obtained at the Burguete Forest, Navarra (forest area:12.230 ha, sample: 42 trees). They have been developed according to the methodology proposed by Montero et al. (2005).
Moreover, the study will analyse the Fagus sylvatica biomass estimation obtained from the application of both methodologies to the forest inventory data of the Burguete Forests (Management Plan, Ingeniería y Gestión Mediambiental, S.L., 2006).
A critical analysis of different approaches to evaluate carbon stock at a regional level, on pure and mixed stands, using BEFs
Domingos Mendes Lopes1, Luís Roxo
Carlos Pacheco Marques1, Diana Feliciano2,
1. Forestry Department, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
2.Portuguese Catholic University, Portugal
stock evaluation on forested areas, for which dendrometric data
expressed in volume units is available, can be indirectly assessed
throughout conversion factors. One of the approaches that have been
advocate for testing purposes, at national and regional level,
requires, at a first stage, the use of biomass expansion factors
(BEF) to convert volume data into dry biomass. In order to get
consistent estimates of dry biomass, the BEF needs, however, to be
reliable and to give consistent results. Other suggested approach
uses tree allometric equations to directly estimate dry biomass from
Using the dry biomass values, carbon stock of a stand or a tree is easily estimated using conversion factors (e.g. 0.50), even if the conversion is not completely accurate.
This study aims to compare the adequacy of different methodologies which have been proposed for evaluation in FORSEE project to obtain dry biomass estimates at regional level. Case study reports to the pilot region Sousa Valley (North Portugal) on pure and mixed stands of Eucalyptus globulus Labill and Pinus pinaster Ait.. Quantitative comparisons were made between a subsequent conversion of volume data on dry biomass and a directly estimation of dry biomass through previous available equations. Critical remarks are presented for the suggested methodologies.
A contribution for an accurate estimation of carbon sequestration in North of Portugal's forests
Virgínia Moreira1, Teresa Fidalgo
Carlos Pacheco Marques1, Diana Feliciano2,
1.Forestry Department, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
2.ortuguese Catholic University, Portugal
Climate change has increased human concerns and future scenarios and implementation of mitigation measures. In this context an accurate evaluation of the carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems is a key problem for a wide range of ecological studies. Having not yet an accurately knowledge of carbon fixation by forest in north Portugal as well as the existing carbon stock, this study tries to give some clues about that potential. The main goal of this study is to quantify the error on estimates of actual carbon stock when assuming the theoretical value of 50%, of carbon per kilogram of dry biomass, or the real value, obtained for each study area from chemical analysis. Samples were collected from stem, leaves and branches, from average trees, but also samples of shrubs, from 33 sampling plots established in Sousa Valley. These were pure stands of Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus and also mixed stands with these two species. As the total biomass was obtained by the sum of partial measurements of each ecosystem element (crop and stem of the arboreal component, and also the shrubs components) actual stock was later evaluated. The results showed that the levels of carbon in Sousa Valley ecosystems were generally above 50%, meaning that it is greater than the average value assumed by a great number of references. That way the amount of sequestered carbon was also different when it was calculated with the real values./p>See the presentation
Estimating Carbon Stocks in Young Conifer Plantations Afforested on Blanket Peat in the West of Ireland
Brian Tobinb, Marina Conwayc,
and Edward P
aForest Ecosystem Research Group, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin
bSchool of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin
cWestern Forestry Co-Op, ICOS House, Finisklin Road, Sligo
the terms of the Kyoto Protocol carbon (C) stocks and stock changes
in forests planted since 1990 can be used to offset emissions
reported in national greenhouse gas inventories. Such estimates are
generally based on national forest inventory (NFI) measurements to
which biomass expansion factors (BEFs) or biomass functions (BFs) are
applied, depending on the information collected. Developing carbon
stock estimates for young (post 1990) forests can be problematic as
trees can be less than merchantable timber volume, resulting in
conventional NFI parameters, such as diameter at breast height (DBH)
and/or tree height generally not being recorded.
In Ireland however, due to the significance of the post 1990 forest resource, tree height measurement is extended to young stands of diameter < 7 cm DBH being recorded. To utilise this information, biomass functions relating average tree height to tree biomass were developed for the two most common species planted in the west of the country, Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis. NFI data was used in conjunction with the developed biomass functions to estimate C stocks on the above and belowground biomass pools.
To estimate the total C stock change for the young stands, default values and national specific values, where available, were used to estimate emissions form the soil, litter and deadwood pools. Tree growth was modelled using a site index approach developed from the first NFI plot data that was used to develop a tree height time series, to which the developed biomass functions were applied.
For typical growth conditions in the region, the forest plantation became a net annual sink of C five years following planting. However regional variations in site growth rates mean that the sites could be sources for as little as three years or as long as 34 years. Emissions from peat soils are the major contributor to the net C stock change in the early years of establishment. Significant research on C cycling in peatland forests is required to improve these estimates and to ensure that good practice reporting to the Kyoto Protocol is achieved.
Session 4 : Indicators for socio economic functions
An integrated approach of forest accounts in order to generate indicators of sustainable management
Jean-Luc Peyron, ECOFOR, France
the socioeconomic sphere, the best known indicator of a yearly
activity and the corresponding flow of wealth is the gross domestic
product (GDP). This indicator is the result of a whole nation-wide
accounting system. The fact is that the existence of forest accounts,
conceived in an integrated economic and environmental view,
elaborated according to international rules, could help in order to
publish indicators of sustainable forest management and to compare
them from one region to another, from one period of time to another.
This idea was at the origin of a French participation to a European task force in order to exchange about the possible formulation of such accounts. It was also at the root of a project financed by Eurostat and aimed at adding some missing data in the field of environmental and social issues. The main idea was to value, at least in physical terms but also, if possible, in monetary units, forest recreation, the conservation of biodiversity, the importance of mushrooms and berry picking and also game hunting, among others.
A survey has been organised in 2002 at the national level with 2575 households selected according to a systematic sample in the telephone directory. Telephone calls have been carried out with the help of about thirty forest students.
This survey allowed estimating the quantity of fuelwood used by households, of mushrooms and berries picked, of game killed. Also the willingness to pay in order to avoid losses of biodiversity was estimated. As for recreation, the importance of forest among leisure places in general has been studied. The number of visits each year, the number of people concerned, the travel distance, and the time length of forest visits have been estimated. Finally, these forest visits have been valued. From that survey, socioeconomic indicators of sustainable forest management can be derived.
Threshold Price as Economic Indicator for Sustainable Forest Management
Yoshimoto1 and Kiyoshi Yukutake2
1 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
2 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
debates on sustainable forest management result from multifold
functions of forest resources to the public. These functions become
effective only if forest resources are under suitable management.
During the last decade in Japan, however we have observed that some
private forest owners have given up or postponed their forestry
practices mainly because of an unfavorable price trend of timber
products at the current. For such a situation, if we were able to
predict a range of price where forest owners can sustain the forest
management, it could be possible to lead forest owners to achieve
sustainability of forest resource management with the use of some
policy measure, e.g. the price support policy commonly applied to
agricultural policy. It could be enough to fill the gap between the
market price and the derived minimum threshold price, when the market
price turns to be lower than the allowable price range for the
management. As a result, this threshold price can be used as an
economic indicator for sustainable forest management.
This paper applies an option approach to search for the threshold price toward the sustainable forest stand management under log price stochasticity. A stochastic model for log price dynamics is provided with use of geometric Brownian motion as well as a variant of mean-reverting process, in which the drift term is a linear function of price and the volatility term is a function of price as in that of geometric Brownian motion. By approximating the stochastic models by the binomial process, we construct a stochastic control model for forest stand management. The proposed control model is to select an optimal decision from three controls, "Harvest-Plantation", "Harvest-Abandon", and "Wait for Harvesting" under price stochasticity. The forest stand growth is derived from the stand density management diagram in the Kyushu region, following the standard forestry practice manual. Letting xt be log price at time t, geometric Brownian motion in the first model is expressed by, where Bt is a standard Brownian motion, and α and σ are coefficients. In the second model, the following mean-reverting stochastic differential equation with β as an additional parameter is used.
Two proposed stochastic control models consist of binomial approximation of the corresponding stochastic process to discretize the process and stochastic dynamic programming to search for an optimal management regime. Discritization is to adjust the given continuous price dynamics to the discrete optimization framework by stochastic dynamic programming.
Parameter estimation is completed by the quasi-maximum likelihood method with applying the local linearization technique to the above continuous stochastic differential equation. Simulation analysis is conducted to investigate how the minimum threshold price level changes along with other management and growth factors under different settings for stochastic prices. All results will be presented.
Improvement of forest employment assessment in Aquitaine
S. Drouineau, et al., CRPF Aquitaine, FranceSee the presentation
Agricole census as source of information for forest socioeconomy
E. Arrieta et al., SpainSee the presentation
Contributions to the estimation of the social economic importance of Forests Sousa’s Valley
A Mendes et al., UCP, Portugal
Methods to assess aesthetic value for forest planning and design
and B. Ramos2
1.Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Natural Recourses, University of Algarve, 8000 Faro, Portugal, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
2. VERDESIGN, Arquitectura Paisagista e Consultoria Ambiental, Lda., 8100 Loule, Portugal, email: email@example.com
forest planning little research devoted to examine how visual impact
assessment may improve the public acceptance of forest activities.
environmental specialists, governmental agencies and non-profit
environmental organizations are interested in scientifically based
tools to assist in landscape evaluation.
expectations ought to be considered in a thoughtful design. The
aesthetics, as a complex subject has been a topic of debate for
philosophers, artists and architects since at least the time of
Socrates. Meanwhile, the idea of beautiful in landscapes has changed
during the history of civilization.There is a great
beauty to be obtained if the scene expresses what we call the
the essence of the place, or its spirit (Genius loci).
Landscapes are experienced by people as places which are more than a
physical piece of land. Location becomes place through the meanings
it is given by people who interact with it over a period,
consequently, forest managers who apply sustainable forestry create
places by giving them meaning.
Objective of the present work is to review the methods of aesthetic assessment of forest landscapes, which will help the implementation of visual impact assessment in sustainable forestry. Numerous techniques of landscape evaluation have been devised in recent years which may be subdivided by several ways, for this review the techniques will be split into direct and indirect.
The expert approach technique has dominated in environmental management practice and the perception-based approach has dominated in research. Both approaches generally accept that landscape quality derives from an interaction between biophysical features of the landscape and perceptual processes of the human viewer. The approaches differ in the relative importance of the landscape and the human viewer components and have been dominant in environmental management practice. Psychophysical preference modelling is one of the quantitative holistic techniques of landscape evaluation which mix subjective and objective methods. The psychophysical approach provides a more appropriate balance between biophysical and human perception components for an operationally delimited landscape quality assessment system.
The indirect landscape aesthetic evaluation methods are used manly from environmental economists and the most important are the hedonic price method, the contingent valuation technique and the travel cost method. The first is a way of scoring landscape components by measuring the willingness to pay to live in a particular type of landscape. The second is valuing landscapes as entity and takes into consideration benefits that could arise at some time in the future. The third uses a sample of visitors to a site and asks them questions about journey costs and their socioeconomic characteristics.
This study suggests continuing investigation on techniques that will help to estimate objectively public perception of aesthetic quality and forest sustainability and on validation of those. Also, suggests to start research in the use of statistical tools such as geostatistics and principle component analysis, to assist in the discovery of appropriate criteria and indicators of ecological change that identify where the relationships to aesthetic occur.
Session 5 : Indicators for ecosystem health
Sampling intensity for sustainability indicators evaluation at regional level
1 Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Lisboa, PORTUGAL
2 Escola Superior Agrária, Departamento Florestal, Coimbra, PORTUGAL
One of the objectives of the Portuguese National Forest Inventory (PNFI) is to provide information on sustainable forest management indicators at country level. One question of interest is to investigate if the sampling intensity used in the PNFI (1 plot per 400 ha) is enough to provide reliable estimates of sustainable forest management indicators at regional level. Data collected under the FORSEE project will be used in order to give some insight into this question. The study focused all the indicators that are usually obtained through the measurement of field plots: volume and carbon stocks in trees and understory, forest health.
Wet-Health: A technique for rapidly assessing wetland health
Kotze, DC2; Ellery, WN2;
Koopman, V3; Goodman, P4
and Goge, C5
1. SHEQ Manager, Sappi Forests (Pty) Ltd.
2.University of KwaZulu-Natal
3.Mondi Wetlands Project
4.Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife
5.Working for Wetlands
are extremely important systems, providing habitat for important
wildlife and a range of goods and services such as flood attenuation,
consistent water supply and sediment trapping to society.
Historically many wetland areas in South Africa were
drained and established to commercial plantation species. With the
growing recognition of the importance of these ecosystems, South
African forestry companies have begun withdrawing trees from these
sensitive areas and reclaiming lost wetland habitat.
WET-Health is a tool designed to help managers assess the health or integrity of a wetland and identify appropriate interventions to ensure successful rehabilitation. Three modules have been developed to assess various aspect of wetland condition, including:
Each of these modules follows a broadly similar approach which aims to evaluate the extent to which anthropogenic changes have impacted wetland functioning or condition. Impacts are identified and scored in a structured fashion to obtain an overall health score which reflects the current health of each wetland component. This approach not only provides an indication of health across a suite of wetland characteristics, but also highlights the key causes of wetland degradation. This technique is therefore not only useful in reporting on current condition but is also designed to both direct and monitor the effects of management interventions on wetland habitats.See the presentation
Stands parameters as indicators of crown condition for sustainable forest management in pine stands from Northen Spain
A. V., Diez, J. J.
Laboratory of Entomology and Forest Pathology. E.T.S. Ingenierías Agrarias. Avda. Madrid 44, 34004. Palencia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
European Programme for the Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems
has been carried out through the whole of continent since 1986. In
this Programme, the degree of defoliation or crown density has been
assessed to evaluate the condition of trees. This involves a visual
estimation of the amount of light passing through the crown relative
to full foliage of the tree. The crown transparency of the tree is
estimated by this not accurate method. There are a wide range of
factors that could be influencing this defoliation process, such as
pest and diseases, climate, soil parameters and forest management. In
this study many of these parameters were evaluated looking for a
relationship among them and the defoliation values.
Crown transparency was estimated after The Pan-European Programme for the Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems, Level I, in 69 plots from the National Forest Inventory (36 covered by Pinus sylvestris, 26 by P. nigra and 7 by P. pinaster). All plots were located in Palencia province (Castile and Leon, Spain), and were chosen from a systematic grid of 2 x 2 Km. All soil types and pine species were represented. Soil samples were taken in 31 of these plots (15 P. sylvestris, 13 P. nigra y 4 P. pinaster) and some parameters were analysed following the FORSEE Project methodology. Climate data were obtained from Digital Climatic Atlas of The Iberian Peninsula. With the aim of reducing the number of variables a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was done. The axes were rotated by varimax criterion.
The PCA analysis revealed tree axes well defined. The first was related with the structure of the stand, the second with the climate and the third with productive parameters. The most explaining stand variables were Basimetric area, Annual rainfall, Minimum temperatures, Hart-Becking Index and Mean Diameter. With the aim to obtain a model that could explain the management variables that had been influencing on defoliation, a Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression was carried out. All the combinations of these variables were tested in the model besides two categorical ones, such as thining/ no thinning, and plot main species. The regression model obtained was significant (p<0.001) and explains 38.7 % of defoliation factor with only five variables (3 continuous and 2 categorical). The not predicted variation in the model could be due to other non-controlled factors such as air deposition of pollutants, water contamination, as well as the subjectivity of visual estimation.
Hemispherical photography versus visual estimation for crown monitoring of pine stands
A. V.1, Valladares,
F.2, Diez, J. J.1
1. Laboratory of Entomology and Forest Pathology. E.T.S. Ingenierías Agrarias. Avda. Madrid 44, 34004. Palencia. E-mail: email@example.com
2. Institute of Natural Resources. Centre of Environmental Sciences –CSIC. C/Serrano 115. E-28006 Madrid, Spain.
status was one of the main criteria chosen for monitoring forest
stands in several Pan-European Processes meetings (e.g. Rio, 1992;
Helsinki, 1993; Montreal, 2003). There is a wide range of pests and
diseases influencing forest health, besides climatic, environmental
and management factors that determine crown development of
Visual methods are widely used to estimate crown development , used
as indicator of forest health, but bias may arise due to both the
subjectivity of the person who estimates and to time variation in the
estimation. Therefore, indirect but more objective methods, such as
hemispherical photography, could overcome these limitations.
Crown condition in this study was estimated following The Pan-European Programme for the Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems, Level I, in 69 plots from the National Forest Inventory (36 covered by Pinus sylvestris, 26 by P. nigra and 7 by P. pinaster). All plots were located in Palencia province (Castile and Leon, Spain), and were chosen from a systematic grid of 2 x 2 Km. In 29 of these plots (12 Pinus sylvestris, 13 P. nigra and 4 P. pinaster), hemispherical photographs were taken (1 photograph/25 m) with a Nikon 4500 Coolpix camera and a fisheye converter lens Nikon Fc-E9. Photographs were always taken at dawn and that the camera was held in a tripod at one meter from the soil surface, levelled vertically to the zenith and north orientated.
Photograph analysis was done with two different software: Gap light Analyzer (GLA) and Hemiview® (HV), and results from the two were compared. These results were correlated to visual defoliation values to assess the suitability and accuracy of this technique to measure crown transparency or defoliation. GLA analysis showed a significant correlation (p-value< 0,001) between plot Leaf Area Index (LAI) and plot defoliation. The model obtained was a reciprocal-x (Y= A + B/X), with R-squared of 54,06 %. The residuals followed a normal distribution and their standard error was 4,1517. In the other hand, Hemiview analysis showed a significant correlation (p-value = 0,001) between LAI and visual estimated plot defoliation. The model was a reciprocal-x one (Y= A + B/X), with R-squared of 48,96 %. The residuals followed a normal distribution and their standard error was 4,3762. Results from the two softwares showed that there was a strongly significant (p-value< 0,001) linear correlation between them, with R-squared of 78,5 %. The standard error of the residuals was 0,177.
These results showed that hemispherical photography can be a useful and objective tool to evaluate crown condition, and that different software render similarly good results. Certain parameters (i.e. photograph size, pre-processing, distance between photographs and species composition) must be, however, harmonized to render comparable results.
Can we standardise sampling strategies to document forest health indicators in cultivated forests?
H. Jactel, (INRA), C. Orazio (IEFC), J-C. Samalens (INRA), M. Conway (Western forestry coop), C. Travers (GAVRN), I. Primicia (GAVRN), A. Cantero (IKT), D. Feliciano (UCP), J. Diez (UVall), et al.
To monitor forest health on large areas is still challenging. The International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests published in 2004 an updated manual with a precise protocol for forest health assessment. This protocol has been used as reference tool to assess forest health indicator in the pilot zones of the FORSEE Project on plot of 80 trees (4*(20 trees)). Taking advantage of the large range of forest stand and ecological context provided by the network of FORSEE, we tested the feasibility, the robustness and the cost of this improved protocol providing much more information about damages than crown condition. We also took advantage of this work to identify the sensitivity of this method: how many trees are required to detect all the damages in a stand? And also test the subplot effect: how many sub-plots of 20 trees do we need to have a good assessment of damages severity?See the presentation
Session 6 : Indicators for protective functions
Quantifying protective effects of forests and need of protection forest management – general ideas and application based on data of 3rd Swiss National Forest Inventory
Duc and U.B.Brändli
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
forest functions (protection, production, leisure,
biodiversity/nature conservation) are considered equal in Swiss
Forest Law. Swiss forest politics focuses on maintaining stable
protection forests and on conserving biodiversity. Therefore, Swiss
National Forest Inventory (CH-NFI) is expected to deliver data on
stability of protection forests and their protective effects as an
important base of forest policy.
On a European level, the criterion “protective functions” was restricted to the protection of water resources and soil by the experts of the Ministerial Conference of the Protection of Forests in Europe for many years. In the alpine space, protection of infrastructure against natural hazards, especially avalanches and rockfall, is at least as important as the protection of water and soil. At the Expert Level Meeting in Vienna in 2002, the area of forest and other wooded land designated to protect infrastructure against natural hazards was included in the set of criteria and indicators.
Standards for the state of protection forests and for the protection forest management were developed by mountain forest experts on request of the Federal Office for the Environment BAFU ten years ago (Wasser&Frehner 1996). These standards could only partly be considered in the evaluation of protection forests by the second NFI because of differences in terminology, poor accuracy of indicators, inaccurate model data and missing NFI-data. Meanwhile, the standards of protection forest management have been revised (Frehner, Wasser & Schwitter 2005), and the procedures for quantifying the protective effects of Swiss forests as well as the need of protection forest management based on data of NFI are being developed in collaboration of Swiss NFI, BAFU and mountain forest experts.
The protective effect of forests are quantified by comparing the most important indicators (gap length, cover, density) with the defined standards. Gap length is not assessed in the field, but should be derived automatically on the base of aerial photographs or data of laserscan.
The need of forest management mainly depends on stability properties and the natural development of protection forests. Mixture, structure, stand stability and regeneration are considered to be the most important indicators, the valuation is depending on site class.
The speech will focus on the need of basics, the possibilities and the limitations of quantifying protective effects of forests based on data of a nationwide sampling survey and other data source. Furthermore, the gaps and uncertainties of the approach will be outlined and the needs of a future monitoring of protection forests will be presented.
Estimation of the amount of C sequestered in the soil in the FORSEE pilot zone in Galicia
Álvarez-Álvarez, , R.
Rodriguez-Soalleiro, A. Merino
Unidad de Gestión Forestal Sostenible, Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo, Spain
increase in C in forest biomass does not necessarily signify that a
plantation stores C, as it is possible that gains in trees will
correspond to losses from soils and, in this case the balance of
sequestration will not be positive. It is therefore important to
quantify the changes in C in soil, as net changes are more important
than changes in biomass and soils may act as high capacity sinks for
C (see, e.g. Lal, 1995, 1998).
The aim of the present study was to make a preliminary evaluation of the amount of carbon sequestered in the different types of soil in the FORSEE pilot zone in Galicia. This mainly involved examination of maps of soil use, geological maps and soil maps.
The soils containing most carbon are those developed on basic rocks and on slates, phyllites and sedimentary material. Low carbon contents were noted in soils in areas in which the soil has been degraded by erosion and in which shallow soils (Leptosols) predominate. In the pilot zone, the mean value of the C content in the soils is 139 Mg C ha-1, which is slightly lower than that observed for the whole region (150 Mg C ha-1, Macias et al., 2001). Non cultivated forest soils, which constitute 71.3% of the pilot zone, represent approximately 98.5% of the C accumulated in the soils.
Soil organic matter structure and dynamics in adjacent seminatural and commercial forests
Ander González-Arias1 Agustín Merino2 &
Martínez de Arano1.
1 NEIKER-Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development, Forestry Unit, Berreaga 1, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia. 2 Escola Politécnica Superior, Dpto. Edafología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo.
area covered by broadleaved autochthonous species has been reduced by
the spread of rapid growth exotic species. In the Basque Country,
most of the remaining Quercus robur forests and Fagus sylvatica
forests have been managed coppiced or pollarded until mid 40s for
charcoal production. Radiata pine plantations, which nowadays cover
60% of forested surface, are harvested every 35-40 years and after
clear-felling, heavy machinery has been used for site preparation
(down-slope subsoiling) since 1980s. These different forest
managements differ mainly in organic matter inputs to soil and in the
level of soil physical disturbance, two ecosystem properties most
likely linked to soil health.
To study the extent of the impact of different forest managements on soil microbial community dynamics and on the ability of the soil to act as a carbon sink, 5 different and adjacent stands - 3 Pinus radiata plantations (adult, young and recently planted), 1 adult Quercus robur stand and 1 adult Fagus sylvatica plantation - were sampled. Three intact samples of forest floor (FF) were sampled, divided into LF and H layers and kept fresh. Three soil samples from the first 5 cm were collected at random, dried (4ºC) and sieved to determine the mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates. Carbon contents were determined in each aggregate size. Fresh forest floors and soil aggregates (20mm - 53μm) at 60% of water-holding capacity were incubated at 30ºC for 28 days and the evolved CO2 measured. Microbial biomass carbon was determined by chloroform-fumigation extraction method in three aggregate sizes.
Mean rates of basal respiration ranged from 38.9 and 41.9 g C-CO2 g-1 FF h-1 in LF-layer forest floors from beech and oak forests, to 96.9 and 98.8 g C-CO2 g-1 FF h-1 in forest floors from young and old pine plantations. However, there was no significant difference in H-layer forest floor. It was remarkable the absence of forest floor in the recently planted forest. MWD from broadleaved forests was higher than that of aggregates from exotic species. The recently planted forest had significantly lower mean aggregate size. Concentration of carbon in aggregate sizes differed among forest stands; the recently planted plantation showed significantly higher content of carbon (16 mg C g-1 soil) in the 0.25-2 mm aggregate size than those concentrations of native forests in the same aggregate size, 6.1 and 7.3 mg C g-1 soil in oak and beech forests respectively. Moreover, basal respiration rates were also highest in the smallest aggregate size ranging from 1.4 and 3.5 g C-CO2 g-1 soil for recently planted and young plantation to 4.0, 5,7 and 6.8 g C-CO2 g-1 soil h-1 for oak, old pine and beech forests. However, the metabolic quotient (qCO2) of the microbial community in mature forests was higher than that corresponding to the young and recently planted pine forests, for all sizes of aggregate. Microbial communities in mature forests were less efficient in C utilization probably due to the abundance of available C that decreased competition among microbial populations.
Species change may have an important impact on the organic matter structure and dynamics as the evolved CO2 was highest from the pine forest floors, probably influenced by the availability and biochemical composition of litter; mechanized forest operations may reduce the ability of soils to act as a carbon sink as they influenced a shift in aggregate distribution to smaller aggregate sizes, those evolving more CO2.
Forest management induced erosion estimated with the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model.
Inazio Martínez de Arano1 Nahia Gartzia-Bengoetxea1, Ander González-Arias11. Forestry Unit, NEIKER Basque Institute for Agrarian Research and Development. Berreaga, 1 48160 Derio, Bizkaia.
The Ibaizabal basin (48.000 ha) has a forest cover of over 50% mainly composed of Radiata pine commercial plantations, managed in a clear-cut regime with a rotation length of around 35 years. Harvest, skiding and mechanical site preparation are key aspects of the management regime. Timber harvesting and site preparation are major management practices that can remove vegetation cover and disturb litter and soil organic layers exposing underlying mineral soil. This increases the erosion risk. Erosion and sediment production can have long-term impacts on site productivity, fish habitat, reservoir storage capacity, and domestic water. This paper describes the implementation of the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model proposed by Mitasova et al.  at the Ibaizabal basin. USPED predicts the spatial distribution of erosion and deposition rates assuming transport limited erosion. The method is based on a detailed terrain analysis performed on a 10 m grid DEM. Soil detachment calculation is similar to USLE and includes an evaluation of the common K and C factors. Net Erosion deposition is based on the spatial variation of transport capacity. Discriminant analysis on 1500 georeferenced soil samples was used to estimate needed soil parameters for all combinations of lithology group, vegetation type and altitudinal range. Forest type was obtained through reclassification of the 3thr National Forest Inventory map (2005). Current forest management regime was derived form management plans and Forest Service regulations. Harvest, logging and site preparation effects on K and C factors were modelized based on available data. Management induced erosion was estimated as the ratio between model outputs for current management regimes and for a Best Management Practices scenario. Model outputs were analyzed for each 19 sub basins. Current annual Soil detachment ranges form 0 to 244 ton/ha/yr, which reflects overall high erosion risk due to slope steepness and rain erosivity Overall means are 1.9 tn/ha/yt for commercial plantations and 0.2 for seminatual forests. Better management practices could reduce soil detachment from 50% to 20% of their current values. Erosion deposition balance shows net soil exports for all sub basins in the range of 0,1 to 1,3 tons/ha/yr. The model estimates that 45-75% of this sediment exports can be attributed to suboptimal management options. While proper calibration of the model is needed for quantitative assessment, at its current stage USPED provides a powerful tool to explore impacts of management and forest planning decisions on soil loss and net sediment production.
Effect of tree species on soil community level physiological profiles
Ander González-Arias1 &
1 NEIKER-Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development, Forestry Unit,
of the soil microbial community is mainly linked to the quantity and
quality of soil organic matter, and this is influenced by the
availability and biochemical composition of litter from the dominant
tree species and root exudates. However, little is known about the
degree to which soil microbial communities differ in soils under
different tree species and different management.
The study was focused in Ibaizabal basin covering mixed broadleaved forests and intensively managed plantations that had been divided into stands dominated by decidious species, particularly Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus ilex, and stands dominated by coniferous trees, mainly Pinus radiata differing in age and silvicultural history. 61 plots were sampled following a quadratic grid where forest floor and two soil depths were sampled, 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm. Forest floors were analyzed for standard chemicals, water extractable carbohydrates and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents.
Community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were performed in soil samples using MicroRespTM to measure the utilization of a variety of carbon substrates that were selected based on ecological relevance to soil. The carbon sources included in the assay were 2 sugars, 2 aminas, 4 amino acids, 5 carboxilic acids,1 phenolic acid and inorganic P.
The fibre contents varied little among stands and ranged from 31,5 to 34,6 % for lignin, and from 19 to 21 % for cellulose. The C/N ratios neither differed significantly with tree species, however the highest mean of 40 was found in pine stands and beech forests showed an overall mean of 35. However, significant differences were found in nutrient concentrations; phosphorous concentrations were highest in beech forests and lowest in Q. ilex forests. Q. robur differed significantly in magnesium content. Lignin/N ratios were very similar in oak and pine forests and were higher than in holm oak and beech forests.
Principal component analysis was performed on all CLPP data simultaneously and the first two factors explained 49% and 17% of the total variance, respectively. Factor 1 was dominated by carboxilic acids, mainly by citric acid and succinic acid and was different between tree species (P < 0,15), probably due to differences in biochemical composition of litter. Factor 2 was dominated by sugars and aminas, such as D-fructose and N-acetyl-glucosamine and differentiated the soil catabolic responses from 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm depths, indicating lower availability of labile substrates in deeper horizons. The response of microbial communities to these substrates was not related to soil parent material, despite of the wide range of lithologies encountered. Litter from different tree species differed in nutrient concentrations and these differences may be reflected in the C utilization patterns of soil microbial communities.
Soil penetration resistance as a critical indicator for sustainable forest management: Modelling approaches for minimizing disturbance
Mark Castonguay 2, Jae Ogilvie 2,
Paul A. Arp
1.University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
2. .Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. Canada.
disturbances such as soil rutting, compaction and erosion can be
considerable hazards for cultivated forests sustainability and
represent an important concern for the implementation of best forest
management practices. These disturbances can reduce seedling and tree
growth, decrease early regeneration, interfere with soil drainage,
may cause water logging, change soil structure, affect water quality,
and they may persist for decades. Remediation procedures are
generally expensive. Undesired machine immobilization and greater
damage can occur as a result of conducting operations when soil
conditions are not suitable for forest trafficking.
Soil penetration resistance, as measured with a cone penetrometer, constitutes an useful indicator of soil trafficability, which can be related to exerted machine pressure, allowing to monitor and prevent compaction and rut formation hazard. The consideration of the effects of soil moisture regimes and soil type on disturbance hazard and likely rutting depth can lead to better forest practices which minimize the impacts on soil and water resources and future forest productivity. Implications of trafficability modelling tools for sustainable forest operations monitoring and planning will be discussed in this presentation.