Abstracts and Communications


Communications titles

Monday December11th

Session 1 : Indicators, needs and improvements.

Risks of Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management, A. Dohrenbusch, Germany
Incorporating disturbances in the pan-European process of implementing sustainable forest management, P. Bodin et al., Sweden/France
FORSEE project : A network of pilot zones to assess and improve Indicator for Sustainable forest management, C. Orazio, France
Getting to grips with environmental monitoring, a case study from Sappi Forests, Macfarlane, D.M, South Africa
“Le Bilan patrimonial des forêts domaniales”, A comprehensive assessment of the state of French government-owned forests, J. Bouillie, France
SFM Indicators in Sustainability Impact Assessment of forestry wood chain, JM Carnus, France

Session 2 : Indicators for biodiversity assessment.


On the use of Birds spiders and carabids as indicators for forest sustainable management in Lousã, Central Portugal, R. Morgado and S. Dias, Portugal
Evaluating trends in structural diversity of forest ecosystems - a case study with data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory, J. Böhl et al., Switzerland
Test of biodiversity and forest structure indicators, in Council Lousã forests, Centre Portugal, Raúl Salas-González, et al. Portugal
Towards indirect, management oriented indicators for biodiversity in plantation forests., Van Halder, et al., France
Testing richness and diversity indexes and vascular plants assemblages as biodiversity indicators, Martín-García J, et al., Spain
Dead-wood attributes as biodiversity indicators in plantation forests, Brin, A et al.
The influence of stand and landscape composition in the diversity of carabid assemblages in non-native plantations and native forests in the Basque Country (Northern Spain), A Martínez et al., Spain
Landscape metrics for characterization of forest landscapes in a sustainable management framework: Potential application and avoidance of misuse, E. Diaz-Varela, Spain
Landscape metrics as surrogates for bird assemblages in biodiversity indicators, Martín-García, J, et al., Spain
DEBATE about Indicators for biodiversity : needs and perspectives


Tuesday December 12th

Session 3 : Indicators for global carbon cycle and Kyoto protocols.


Keynote: Estimation of carbon sequestration at regional level, Margarida tomé
Analysis of the BEFs used until 2005 in the Portuguese National Reports of emissions and removals for the LULUCF, Sónia P. Faias et al , Portugal
Evaluating carbon stock in the Maritime pine stand biomass: region-wide application, Meredieu et al., France
Testing of different dead wood protocols and construction of tools allowing the French National Forest Inventory to choose and dimension its new dead wood protocol, Teissier du cros et al., France
Determining the aerial biomass of the adult Maritime pine stand understorey: contribution to the quantification of forest carbon stock using cover-based indicators, Porte et al., France
Relationships between decay classes, density, and carbon and nitrogen content in Fagus Sylvatica dead wood, A. Martiarena et al., Spain
Comparative analysis between the tree biomass estimation for Fagus Sylvatica from alometric equations and the biomass expansion factors (BEFs) in Navarra, C. Traver et al., Spain
A critical analysis of different approaches to evaluate carbon stock at a regional level, on pure and mixed stands, using BEFs, T. Fidalgo Fonseca et al., Portugal
A contribution for an accurate estimation of carbon sequestration in North of Portugal forests, D. Mendes Lopes et al, Portugal
Estimating Carbon Stocks in Young Conifer Plantations
Afforested on Blanket Peat in the West of Ireland, C. Green et al., Ireland

Session 4 : Indicators for socio economic functions


Keynote : Américo Mendes, Socieconomic indicators for sustainable forest management
Keynote : Roque Soleiro (Forest products monitoring)
An integrated approach of forest accounts in order to generate indicators of SFM, JL ¨Peyron, France
Threshold price as an economic indicator for sustainable forest Management, Atsushi Yoshimoto, Japan
Improvement of forest employment assessment in Aquitaine, S. Drouineau, et al. France
Agricole census as source of information for forest socioeconomy, E. Arrieta et al., Spain
Contributions to the estimation of the social economic importance of Forests Sousa’s Valley. A Mendes et al., Portugal
Methods to assess aesthetic value for forest planning and design, T. Panagopoulos et al., Portugal

Wednesday December 13th

Session 5 : Indicators for ecosystem health


Keynote : Julio Diez
Sampling intensity for sustainability indicators evaluation at regional level, S. P. Faias et al , Portugal
Wet-Health: A technique for rapidly assessing wetland health, Macfarlane, D.M, South Africa
Stand parameters as indicators of crown condition for sustainable forest management in pine Stands from Nortehn  Spain, Sanz-Ros, A. et al., Spain
Hemispherical photography versus visual estimation for crown monitoring of pine stands., Sanz-Ros, A. et al., Spain
Can we standardise sampling strategies to document forest health indicators in cultivated forests?, Jactel, H. et al., France

Session 6 : Indicators for protective functions

Keynote : Inazio Martinez de Araño
Quantifying protective effects of forests and need of protection forest management – general ideas and application based on data of 3rd Swiss National Forest Inventory, P. Duc et al., Switzerland<
Estimation of the amount of C sequestered in the soil in the FORSEE pilot zone in Galicia, F. Solla-Gullón et al, Spain
Soil organic matter structure and dynamics in adjacent seminatural and commercial forests, N Gartzia Bengoetxea et al., Spain
Forest management induced erosion estimated with the Unit Stream Power
Erosion Deposition (USPED) model., I Martínez de Arano et al, Spain
Effect of tree species on soil community level physiological profiles, N Gartzia Bengoetxea et al., Spain
Soil penetration resistance as a critical indicator for sustainable forest management: Modelling approaches for minimizing disturbance , D J. Vega Nieva, Spain

Photos

Group
Introductionbarriques

Posters

Integrated Approach for the evaluation of SFM Indicators at local scales, IEFC
Equations to estimate biomass of aboveground tree components in Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal, Nuno António, Margarida Tomé, Paula Soares, José A. Tomé, Luís Fontes
Dead wood measuring in sampling plots in Basque Country, Alejandro Cantero Amiano Daniel Sáenz García (IKT, S.A.)
Hedgerows and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management: a case-study in Veneto region, Marta Chincarini, Italy.
Individual-tree height growth in Pinus plantations in northern Spain, Celia Herrero (University of Valladolid)
Natural reforestation in the Swiss Alps - modelling patterns, understanding processes, predicting future developments, Mario Gellrich, Prof. Dr. Hans Rudolf Heiniman
The development of criteria, indicators and standards for sustainable management of plantation and natural forests in South Africa, Maleka Mmakwena
Contribuição para o Estudo da fixação de Carbono em Povoamentos de Pinus pinaster e Eucalyptus globulus no norte de Portugal - Considerando as componentes arbóreas e arbustivas, Virginia Moreira, (UTAD)
Comunidades de aves nidificantes nos povoamentos florestais do concelho de Lousã, Rui Morgado & Susana Dias
FORSEE:  uma rede europeia de zonas piloto para a avaliação de critérios e indicadores de sustentabilidade florestal, Sónia Pacheco Faias, Margarida Tomé, Sónia Beito, Fernando Páscoa, Diana Feliciano, Américo Mendes
The influence of stemwood volume equations to estimate carbon pools using Biomass Expansion Factors (BEFs) on Fagus sylvatica L. in Navarra, I. Primicia et al. (GAVRN)
Evaluation of indicators for accessibility and harvestability of forests stand: a case study in communal forests in Galicia, Paula Rodriguez Porta
Minimizing soil disturbances in forest operations based on soil trafficability modelling and planning Minimizing soil disturbances, J. Vega Nieva et al. (USC)
Is it possible for Japan to keep the sustainable forestry management ? - From the viewpoint of timber market, Kiyoshi Yukutake (University of Miyazaki)

ISFM2006 Abstracts

Session 1 : Indicators, needs and improvements.

Risks of Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management

Achim Dohrenbusch
Institute of Silviculture, University of Goettingen, Germany

Sustainable forest management (SFM) has been, since the UNCED in Rio in 1992, a leading concept in international deliberations and work. "Sustainability" as a complex idea involving economic, environmental and social factors. They believe that in order to work effectively toward this goal, the nation’s forestry leaders must, first, articulate a national policy of sustainable forest management; second, revise and integrate national strategic direction to support this policy; and third, build an integrated and accessible data base to measure current forest conditions as well as long-term trends. During the last years, many sets of criteria and indicators (C&I) of sustainable forest management have been developed around the world. Research institutes, universities and government research groups are investigating social, economic and biophysical criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management at the international, national and regional level. The Montreal Process envisioned criteria as a large scale reflection of public values. Indicators would then provide the means for measuring these forest conditions and for tracking subsequent changes. The indicators are intended to be flexible elements of resource monitoring that can be adjusted to provide the most accurate assessment of changing environmental, economic and social conditions. Mainly politicians have high expectations on the use of the criteria and indicators for sustainable management. This contribution is a critical reflection on the problems of the large number of indicators that has been developed for sustainable forest management in the recent past.

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Incorporating disturbances in the pan-European process of implementing sustainable forest management

P. Bodin and A. Mårell
.Environmental Science Section, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Sweden
French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA)Mediterranean Forest Research Unit (URFM), Team of Forest Fire Prevention (PIF), INRA Site Agroparc, Domaine Saint Paul, France

In recent years there has occurred a shift in forest management from a more static and single-goal oriented view of forests (as the provider of wood resources) to a more dynamic multiple-goal oriented one where several different functions are appreciated. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) tries to incorporate theses multiple objectives and to create management goals that are in line with these. In order to assess how these management goals are being met a set of criteria and indicators have been developed by the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE). The indicators are used in order to see how sustainable the management of the forest is. SFM is a great challenge to forest managers of today with increasing demands on the functions that forests should perform. The challenge does not become any less in the face of a likely changing climate that not only will see changes in average meteorological parameters but also in the frequency and amplitude of natural disturbance. In this paper we assess how well the criteria and indicators used by the MCPFE are adapted for incorporating questions about disturbance on the forests. This is done by investigating the relationship between the indicators and what effect different types of disturbances might have on the SFM system. For illustrative purposes the effects of a major disturbance on a European forest (the 2005 storm in Sweden) on the MCPFE criteria and indicators are studied.

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FORSEE project : A network of pilot zones to assess and improve Indicator for Sustainable forest management

Orazio, IEFC, France

http://www.iefc.net/index.php?affiche_page=projet_forsee

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Getting to grips with environmental monitoring, a case study from Sappi Forests

Macfarlane, D.M
SHEQ Manager, Sappi Forests (Pty) Ltd.

With the advent of certification, plantation companies are being expected to undertake a wide range of monitoring activities to evaluate the impact of their activities on the natural environment. Certified plantations have no option but to initiate monitoring programs but how can companies plan, coordinate and manage monitoring information in a way that not only meets external requirements but adds value to their business and provides sound management information? In South Africa, we have been grappling with these issues for a number of years and have implemented a “State of the Environment” reporting approach to monitoring and reporting that may assist other plantation managers grappling with the same issues. The building blocks of this approach include:
1. A standardized reporting framework: Results of monitoring activities are typically presented in a variety of forms that are difficult to interpret and understand. We have adopted an approach that classifies all results into health classes that can be easily understood by technical and field staff alike.
2. Customized monitoring protocols: Where available, generic monitoring protocols have been customized to conform to specific plantation requirements. New monitoring protocols have also been developed for habitats where no tools were available. Where possible, these evaluations are developed to identify causes rather than providing specific biological information.
3. Database for capturing and storing information: A central storage facility is essential for maintaining the numerous monitoring records generated for a wide range of sites over different periods. We have developed a database for capturing and storing monitoring results, photos and maps which can be used to generate customized site reports on request. Export functionalities also enable data to be extracted to produce useful graphs to compare results across different FMU’s and over different periods.
4. Individual site reports for each FMU: Comprehensive reports are generated for each FMU. This pulls all monitoring results together into a user-friendly document which provides a holistic picture for the entire plantation. Practical management interventions are also identified for action at the FMU level. This provides plantation managers with a tangible document that can be used to manage appropriate interventions.

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Le Bilan patrimonial des forêts domaniales”, A comprehensive assessment of the state of French government-owned forests

Published by the Office National des Forêts; project chief:J. Bouillie¹
1. Research and Development Department, Office National des Forêts, France

Definition and objectives of the assessment
Formerly owned by the church or monarchy, the French government forests represent a valuable national heritage. They consist of 1,426 forests covering 1,699,000 hectares, that is 3% of the French metropolitan area. In 2002, the French government requested that the Office National des Forêts (ONF) proceed with the first ever comprehensive assessment of the state of its forests. This review was also meant to provide:

In practical terms the assessment was based on covering 4 main areas: economy and production (10 indicators);biodiversity and rare habitats (10); socio-cultural aspects and tourism management (5); risks to and health of the forest (5). Each indicator is designed to make an objective and neutral inventory of a specific issue. The indicators as a whole seek to give a balanced and complete overview of the government forests, taking into account their economic, ecological and social diversity. The results are given on three different levels: national, bio-geographical and regional. This study, to be updated every five years, was first published in mid-2006 (about 300 pages). The project benefited from numerous internal and external contributions, including the participation of the ONF’s Scientific Committee and consultations with the stakeholders in the timber industry, environmental protection and the social functions of the forest.
Utility and limitations of the results
Certain outcomes can be used to monitor or plan forest management: for example, contrasting results at different times; geographical variation; comparison between types of forests. However, the structure of the project presents several limitations, notably:

The presentation will focus on these limitations, illustrating them with concrete examples chosen from among the 30 indicators. Some suggestions for future changes will be made.

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SFM Indicators in Sustainability Impact Assessment of forestry wood chain

Jean-Michel Carnus and Mikael Poissonnet
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Forestry Wood Research site , Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France

The idea of indicators in relation to sustainability was formally taken up by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio, in June 1992. In its Agenda 21, it was agreed to develop indicators of sustainable development in order to provide solid bases for decision-making at all levels and to contribute to the self-regulating sustainability of integrated environment and development systems.
Sustainable development indicators serve as instruments for measuring progress towards the reaching of the goal of sustainable development. Many definitions for indicators are available. The six main functions for indicators that are important for their application include reporting, communication, forecasting, focusing, political control, and check for effectiveness. In the pan European process for Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), an indicator is a quantitative or qualitative parameter which can be assessed in relation to a criterion; the indicators show changes over time for each criterion and demonstrate the progress made towards its specified objective. (MCPFE).
The indicators for Sustainable Forest Management need to be consistent with other relevant existing sustainability indicator frameworks with respect to themes and issues covered. Estimates confined only to forest sector are of limited use for policy-makers at higher levels. Both sector-specific and general frameworks have to be considered when improving SFM indicators. For MCPFE indicators, the main attention needs to be paid to consistency and articulation with: existing general European frameworks such as EU sustainability impact assessment (SIA) guidelines, the Sustainable Development Indicators of the European Union (SDI-Eurostat) or the European Union Rural Indicators (PAIS); and specific sectoral or cross-sectoral frameworks such as those under development in 6 FP for quantitative SIA of forestry-wood chains (Eforwood integrated project) and of land-use changes (Sensor integrated project). 

Session 2 : Indicators for biodiversity assessment

On the use of Birds as indicators for forest sustainable management in Lousã, Central Portugal.

R. Morgado and S. Dias, Centro de Ecologia Aplicada 
Prof. Baeta Neves, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisbon, Portugal

The relationships of birds with different forest types and the influence of silviculture practices on bird community structure and function are well documented, suggesting the use of birds as biodiversity indicators for forest sustainable management. Within the scope of the FORSEE project we investigated this possibility using the Lousã pilot zone (Central Portugal) as study site. Cultivated forests occupy nearly 60% of this area. Maritime pine Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus sp. are the dominant forest species covering about 67% and 24% of total forested area, while the remaining species (e.g. chestnut Castanea sativa, cork oak Quercus suber, common oak Quercus robur) are relatively scarce. Sampling was conducted on 44 plots representing four forest types - pure maritime pine, pure eucalyptus, pure other species (chestnut and oak stands) and mixed forests - and a shrub class representing an intermediate stage of forest succession. Birds were sampled during the Spring of 2005 using 10 min. point counts, with the distance limits corresponding to patch boundaries. Each plot was visited twice during the breeding season, and the higher values of bird richness (expressed as the number of species per plot) and abundance (expressed as the number of pairs per plot) of the two visits were used. A total of 43 bird species were recorded during fieldwork. Wren Troglodytes troglodytes (frequency of occurrence=82%), robin Erithacus rubecula (78%) and blackcap Sylvia atricapilla (65%) were the most frequent species. The results from a  correspondence analysis (species vs. sites matrix) suggests a stratification of the bird community across a gradient of vegetation structural complexity from shrubs to forest, being less clear the differences in terms of species composition between the different forest types. Richness, abundance and diversity (Shannon index) varied significantly across the different forest types considered (Kruskal Wallis [4,44]=34,57; 33,64; 34,49; p<0,001), being lower in eucalyptus and progressively higher in the direction: shrub – maritime pine – mixed forest – other species.
The results obtained so far suggest that bird community parameters are strongly conditioned by forest type, which is in fact a primary management option. Therefore further investigation on the use of birds as indicators of forest sustainable management in the area should be set out within the forest type level or at least for eucalyptus vs. other species. The integration of abiotic factors and management characteristics of each forest type in subsequent analyses will be presented.


Evaluating trends in structural diversity of forest ecosystems – a case study with data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory

J. Böhl and E. Kaufmann
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland

Environmental services provided by forest ecosystems play an increasingly important role for society and forest management. One can follow this process on a national and international level. In Switzerland the Federal Office for the Environment formulated that the focus of forest politics in the future should be on stable protection forests and on the conservation of biodiversity. On an international level, the Ministerial Conference on the protection of forests in Europe developed criteria for sustainable forest management. Among these are the maintenance, conservation and appropriate enhancement of biological diversity in forest ecosystems.
Ecologists attempt to inventory biodiversity and to document changes. Therefore monitoring instruments must be developed and data is needed to distinguish whether forest ecosystems are gaining or loosing biodiversity. Since changes in undisturbed forest ecosystems happen rather slowly, it can be assumed that it would take many years to collect specific data to answer questions concerning trends in biodiversity. However data from National Forest inventories (NFI) is already available for most European countries. Most NFI’s were set up in the eighties and mainly designed for volume estimation. Now the question arise: Is it possible to use this data to evaluate trends of biodiversity in forest ecosystems? If this attempt is successful the information can be delivered in a cost effective way through already existing data. Another benefit of this strategy is that earlier assessments can be taken into account, and trends in biodiversity can be detected over the past decades.
We evaluate trends in three steps. Firstly we define structural diversity, i.e. a combination of species and diameter information, as an indicator of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. In a second step we identify and analyse a suitable index - an extension of the Shannon-Index - that can be estimated using NFI data. In the last step we evaluate a possible trend in structural diversity with the help of a statistical analysis. We applied the method in two study regions using data of the Swiss NFI and found significantly higher index values over three inventory occasions. The question following our result is now: Is the detected trend relevant for ecologists and forest politics?

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Test of biodiversity and forest structure indicators, in Council Lousã forests, Centre Portugal.

Raúl Salas-González*, BeatrizFidalgo and Paulo Morais
Departamento Florestal, Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, 03040-316 Bencanta, Coimbra, Portugal
Corresponding author, email: rsalas@esac.pt

Forests in Lousã Council are dominated by private owners. Forty percent approximately are managed by Portuguese forest service. In twenty century, this public Institution planted extended areas with conifer and native broadleaf species. Therefore, in this Council exists since fast-growing species to species with conservation value. Forests in Lousã Council are particularly important due to its economical, social and conservation functions. The aim of this study is to evaluate biodiversity and structure indicators in these forests, from data that could be recorded in a conventional forest inventory. To fulfil our objectives, biodiversity and structures are compared among stands, to achieve this analyse, stands are divided in strata: herbs, shrubs and trees. We compute different known Alfa a (Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson’s reciprocal index, Hill’s N1 index, Pielou’s J’, Alatalo’s F, etc) and Beta b (Whittaker's Index) biodiversity index. Are analysed some indices for each strata to evaluate some structural indicators and compare vertical (Species profile index, tree strata dominance index) and horizontal (Standard deviation of dbh) structure as well. A cluster analysis is performed to find similarities or dissimilarities among stands. Finally biodiversity was related with landscape metrics.

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Towards indirect, management oriented indicators for biodiversity in plantation forests

Van Halder, et al., INRA, France

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Testing richness and diversity indexes and vascular plants assemblages as biodiversity indicators

Martín-García, J1, Hervé, J2, Díez, J.J.1
Laboratorio de Entomología y Patología Forestal, ETSIIAA. Univ. de Valladolid.Palencia, Spain. E-mail: jorgemg@pvs.uva.es.
2. UMR 1202 BIOGECO, INRA. CESTAS Cedex, France.

Within the framework of the FORSEE project, Castile and Leon region assessed different biodiversity indicators, among others vascular plants. This study was principally focused on poplar plantations, experimental design on poplar plantations was factorial with three factors, age (young and adult stands), quality site (poor and rich) and management (harrowed or not harrowed), that is to say eight treatment with four replicates each one. Besides, for the purpose of comparing the vascular diversity among poplar plantations and others forest types, were chosen in the same pilot zone four oak stands, four pine plantations stands and 3 riparian forest stands.
A total of 192 species were identified, particularly 137 on the 32 poplar plantations (eight treatments), 32 on pine plantations, 43 on oaks and 35 on riparian forest.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the age and management factors influenced in the richness index, adult and management stands gave fewer index values than young and not management stands, respectively (p<0.01). On the other hand, pine plantations showed fewer richness index values than young and not management poplar stands (p<0.01), although no significant differences were observed between oak and riparian forest. The same analysis were carried out using Shannon and Evenness index as dependent variables, however none different among treatment and forest types were showed.
Correspondence analyses (CA) were used to detect vascular plants assemblages and their indicator species. So, were clearly differentiated three groups of stands, the first was consisting of riparian stands with some indicator species connected to moist condition (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Galium palustre, Geranium robertianum and Ribes rubrum). The second group consisted on oak and pine stands with other indicator species (Cytisus scoparius, Cruciata laevipes, Erica cinerea and Clinopodium vulgare) and a third group formed of poplar stands. Other CA from only poplar stands was carried out to assess the effect of the factors on the vascular plant assemblages, so several associations were detected.  On the one hand, on rich stands two assemblages were observed according to age, so in young stands the indicator species are more closely related with high nitrogen levels (Hordeum murinum, Lolium rigidum and Cirsium arvense) whereas in adult stands the indicator species showed high affinity with moist soils (Phleum pratense, Taraxacum gr. officinale and Trifolium repens). On the other hand, in adult stands were noticed two assemblages according to quality site, in poor stands the indicator species were associated to sandy and cultivated soils (Taeniatherum caput-medusae, Vulpia myuros and Hypochoeris radicata), whereas in rich stands the indicator species are closer under wet conditions (Phleum pratense, and Trifolium repens). Strangely, management factor failed to show different assemblages.
These results seem to point out that only richness and diversity indexes shouldn’t be used as biodiversity indicators, since these indexes don’t take into account the species assemblages, but only the number and cover of them. This way is proposed to use these indexes together with indicator species. Furthermore, the search for indicator species should be carried out taking into account that some factors, as age and site, could influence in the result.

Dead-wood attributes as biodiversity indicators in plantation forests

Brin, A et al.

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The influence of stand and landscape composition in the diversity of carabid assemblages in non-native plantations and native forests in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

Adoración Martínez, Anais Michelena, Alejandro Cantero, Miren Onaindia y Arturo Goldarazena

Diversity of carabid communities and their response to stand and landscape variables were analysed and compared between non-native pine plantations and native atlantic forest stands along the Ibaizabal river in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Carabid beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping in 64 stands that differ in landscape structure and composition during summer, autumn and spring 2005-2006. Other approach was trying to identify species that characterize the different forest habitats (indicator species) using the indicator value (IndVal).A total of 13741 individuals of 34 different carabid species were identified. The stand with highest species richness, a P.radiata plantation, had a total number of 13 species while in a grazed young Eucalyptus plantation there were not found any species.Carabus was find to be the genus with more species number (9), followed by Harpalus and Amara represented by 3 species. The species with the highest number of individuals were Carabus nemoralis, Steropus gallega and Abax parallelepipedus. The number of individuals belonging to these three species represented more than the 60% of the total captures.

Landscape metrics for characterization of forest landscapes in a sustainable management framework: Potential application and avoidance of misuse

E. Diaz-Varela2, P. Álvarez-Álvarez1, F. Solla-Gullón1, A. Rigueiro-Rodríguez1, R. Crecente Maseda2
1. Department of Vegetal Production, University of Santiago de Compostela
2. LaboraTe, Department of Forestal Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela

The use of landscape indices for the study of forest landscapes is potentially useful in sustainable forest management. Application of the indices involves the analysis and correct interpretation of the results obtained and the detection of relationships between such results and other factors that are important in sustainable management. These procedures provide a great potential for the integration of relevant information in multifunctional forest practices, with special focus on biodiversity.
Nevertheless, in order to avoid inadequate results, it is necessary to consider factors relative to the indices themselves, and to the cartographic information analyzed. Especially important among these factors are the use of a correct reference scale for data collection and application of the indices.
The present study involved the application of several landscape indices recommended in the FORSEE PROYECT (patch number, mean area, edge density, area weighted shape index, Shannon diversity and evenness indices, and Euclidean nearest neighbour), by varying fundamental components of the scale (resolution and extension) and using different cartographical sources (National Forest Map and a map obtained by interpretation of aerial photography). The geographical area used for the calculations included the pilot zone of the FORSEE PROJECT, the municipalities making it up, and buffer zones around inventory plots from which the data were collected. The spatial resolution was 10x10m pixel size for the first area, and 1x1m for the latter. The results were later compared with the inventory data (biomass, dead wood, specific diversity, etc.) using multivariate statistical analyses (regression, CART…).
The analysis of results allowed evaluation of the potential of forest characterization aimed at sustainable management, by the detection of variables of interest (fragmentation, heterogeneity, connectivity), and of their relationships with other indicators. Nevertheless, there is a possibility of incurring diverse types of errors, due to the use of inadequate aggregation methods, or to the inadequacy of the indices. Some ways of avoiding such errors are suggested.

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Landscape metrics as surrogates for bird assemblages in biodiversity indicators

Martín-García, J1, Hervé, J2, Díez, J.J.1
1. Laboratorio de Entomología y Patología Forestal, ETSIIAA. Univ. de Valladolid.Palencia, Spain. E-mail: jorgemg@pvs.uva.es
2. UMR 1202 BIOGECO, INRA. CESTAS Cedex, France.

Usefulness of birds as biodiversity indicators is very well-documented, however in practice the application of bird richness or diversity indexes are often impossible to monitor by managers. Because its demand a strong spending of recourses, not only economic but also technical. For this reason, it is necessary that researches provide managers of effective and feasible tools to assess biodiversity, of which they can obtain easy management rules. So, we analyzed the usefulness of landscape metrics as surrogate for bird assemblages in biodiversity indicators.
Our study was focused on 34 poplar stands localized in river Carrion basin (Castile and Leon, Spain). A total of 74 bird species were recorded, of which 53 were used in analysis. Bird richness is correlated with some landscape metrics: (a) edge density of hedgerows; (b) large patch index; (c) number of patches of adult poplar plantations (r2 = 0.55, p<0.0001). So, an increasing edge density of hedgerows and numbers of patches of adult poplar benefit to bird richness, whereas high large patch index values indicate less bird richness. These results seem to validate the hypothesis that landscape metrics could be used as biodiversity indicators.
However, when the effect of landscape metrics to species level was analyzed, several bird assemblages that showed affinity with different landscape metrics were noted; proximity to pine plantations or urban areas, edge density of hedgerows, adult and young poplar plantations area, etc. Therefore, it would be necessary to fix the aims of sustainable forest management; either to achieve maximum species richness or to benefit some bird assemblages due to their high ecological value.

Session 3 : Indicators for global carbon cycle and Kyoto protocols.

Estimation of carbon sequestration by Pinus pinaster Aiton and Eucalytpus globulus Labill. stands in the FORSEE pilot region “Pinhal Interior Norte” for the period 1990-2005

Margarida Tomé1, Paula Soares1, Sónia Faias1, José Borges1, João Borges1
Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Lisboa, PORTUGAL

The evaluation of the contribution of forests to climate change mitigation through the carbon cycle is of utmost importance due to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. From a research standpoint two views can be considered: i) how to evaluate the carbon balance of a particular forest well defined in space; ii) how to use the existing knowledge to provide estimations of carbon balance at country level. The last poses several problems, namely The objective of the present presentation is to discuss the possibility to use national or regional forest inventory data in a way to provide good estimations of carbon balance over time at region level. The proposed methodologies will be tested to estimate carbon sequestered over time for the period 1990-2005 by Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster stands of the “Pinhal Interior Norte” region.

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Analysis of the BEFs used until 2005 in the Portuguese National Reports of emissions and removals for the LULUCF

Margarida Tomé1, Paula Soares1, Joana Paulo1, Sónia P. Faias1
1 Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Lisboa, PORTUGAL
2 Escola Superior Agrária, Departamento Florestal, Coimbra, PORTUGAL

The Portuguese National Reports of emissions and removals of CO2 and non-CO2 for the Land-Use, Land-use Change and Forestry sector (PNR-LULUCF) has been based on a set of biomass expansion factors that were estimated on the basis of published NFI data. Since then several studies have been made in order to develop allometric equations for the most important forest species in the country. The objective of this presentation is to use the most recent allometric equations for each species in order to estimate stand volume and biomass for a large set of plots representative of different regions, sites and stages of stand development. Biomass expansion factors were computed for each plot and its dependence on site and stand variables was studied. An analysis of the results of this study supports a critical analysis of the biomass expansion factors that have been used before. As a final consequence of the study, a new methodology to be used in future PNR-LULUCF is proposed.

Evaluating carbon stock in the Maritime pine stand biomass: region-wide application

Meredieu (1), Antoine Colin (2), Rémi Teissier du Cros (3), Mélanie Chantal, Annabel Porté (1), Denis Loustau (1)
(1) INRA, Research Unit EPHYSE – 69 route d’Arcachon, 33612 Cestas cedex, France Tel. +33 (0)5 57 12 28 61 – Fax. +33 (0)5 56 68 05 46 – Email: Celine.Meredieu@pierroton.inra.fr
(2) IFN – Development department – Château des Barres, 45290 Nogent-sur-Vernisson, France
(3) IFN – Bordeaux office - 62 rue de Laseppe, 33000 Bordeaux, France

Forests’ contribution to the global carbon cycle and their diminishing impact on human-induced climate change were identified in the early 1990s and were partially considered as part of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. This recognition of forests’ roles in carbon storage has been accompanied by requests for methodologies that could be used to assess the amounts of carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems so as to be able to draw up periodic reports in the framework of several international commitments (UNFCC, Kyoto Protocol). The Forest-Wood sector in the Aquitaine region of France also contributes to the carbon cycle, both via the functioning of in situ forests and via the production of wood-based goods and energy. The issue of evaluating and monitoring carbon stock is therefore of interest from both a scientific and methodological standpoint.
There are various methods for assessing carbon stock in the aerial biomass of Maritime pine-based ecosystems and these methods are more or less valid depending on the spatial scales. In this presentation, we will examine each of these methods and apply one of them on a region-wide level.

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Testing of different dead wood protocols and construction of tools allowing the FrenchNational Forest nventory to choose and dimension its new dead wood protocol

Sandra Lopez, Rémi Teissier du Cros, Thierry Bélouard, Inventaire forestier national, Bordeaux, France

The French NFI doesn’t properly inventory dead wood volume into each category. An appropriate dead wood protocol is necessary to fill in carbon storage or biodiversity indicators. The objective of this study was: 1) to determine which protocol is most appropriate for the French NFI; and 2) to provide  tools for protocol dimensioning depending on statistic precision and the cost of measurements. A bibliographic search steered us toward line intersect sampling (LIS) and plot sampling. In addition, we used the results of 2 recent projects (BIOSOIL and FORSEE) to build a field test protocol combining the different methodologies. We measured 31 plots under different stand conditions (forest types and dead wood volume). The first results showed that LIS is not statistically more accurate than plot sampling but costs less. Using a resampling analysis we increased the data in order to have the widest possible range of values. We calculated the percentage of volume lost depending on the minimum inventorying diameter. Variance estimations showed that it is more useful to inventory a large number of plots with shorter transect.

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Determining the aerial biomass of the adult Maritime pine stand understorey: contribution to the quantification of forest carbon stock using cover-based indicators

Annabel Porté (1), Raphaël Dulhoste (1), Sandra Lopez (1), Alexandre Bosc (1), Céline Meredieu (1), Rémi Teissier du Cros (2), Pierre Trichet (1), Frédéric Bernier (4) et Denis Loustau (3)
(1) INRA Research Unit EPHYSE – 69 route d’Arcachon, 33612 Cestas cedex, France
Tel. +33 (0)5 57 12 28 95 – Fax. +33 (0)5 56 68 05 46 - E-mail: annabel.porte@pierroton.inra.fr
(2) IFN – 62 rue de Laseppe, 33000 Bordeaux, France
(3) INRA Research Unit EPHYSE – 71 avenue Edouard Bourlaux BP81, 33883 Villenave d’Ornon cedex, France
(4) INRA L’Hermitage Experimental Unit– 69 route d’Arcachon, 33612 Cestas cedex, France

Destructive understorey biomass measures have been carried out over a series of meso-hygrophilous, mesophilic and dry Maritime pine stands. We have estimated the carbon stock in this forest sector to be at 1.75 tC ha-1, on average. Significant variability exists resulting from stational conditions. Moreover, we have put together an understorey volume index that may be used as a carbon stock indicator in the aerial biomass of the understorey. This index is calculated based on ratings related to cover per species and to average heights. Cover per species is traditionally performed by the French National Forest Inventory (NFI) at its survey points. We compared this index to the biomass data collected during this study; significant correlations were highlighted for herbs, ferns and moss. It would be useful to adapt the method by examining each species to improve the correlation for ligneous species.

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Relationships between decay classes, density, and carbon nitrogen content in Fagus Sulvatica dead wood

Aurkene Martiarena1, Irantzu Primicia2, Bosco Imbert1, Carmen Traver2
1 Departamento de Ciencias del Medio Natural, Universidad Pública de Navarra
2  Gestión Ambiental, Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, S.A.

Dead wood serves many key functions in forest ecosystems. It provides habitat for many species of microorganisms, invertebrates and vertebrates, and reduces erosion. Additionally, it is a source of energy and also constitutes one of the main carbon sink components in many forests.
Due to the recognition of dead wood functions in forest ecosystems, several researchers have focused on the development of a correct methodology to assess dead wood quantity in forest stands. However, few papers have been published about the relationships between decay classes, density, and carbon and nitrogen content in dead wood. This type of information is essential for a correct assessment of the dead wood carbon and nitrogen content.
Therefore, this research deals with the study of the relationships between decay classes, density, and carbon and nitrogen content in Fagus sylvatica dead wood from the Pyrennees of Navarre.

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Comparative analysis between the tree biomass estimation for Fagus Sylvatica from alometric equations and biomass factors (BEFs) in Navarra

Carmen Traver1, Irantzu Primicia1, Fernando Puertas2
1 Gestión Ambiental, Viveros y Repoblaciones de Navarra, S.A.
2 Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Ordenación del Territorio y Vivienda, Gobierno de Navarra

During the last decade, many studies have focussed on the estimation of carbon content in different tree species, due to the world-wide importance given to the assessment of greenhouse gases. Its main target has been the determination of a reliable methodology to estimate the carbon sequestration. Two types of methodologies have been mainly investigated: Biomass Alometric Equations and Biomass Expansion Factors (BEFs).
Both methodologies are mainly aimed at its direct application to the Forest Inventory and National Forest Inventory data, so the different countries are able to elaborate the Annual Greenhouse Gas Inventory established in Council Decision 99/296/EC.
In this study, Alometric Equations have been developed to assess the aboveground and belowground biomass of Fagus sylvatica from a destructive inventory of a tree sample obtained at the Burguete Forest, Navarra (forest area:12.230 ha, sample: 42 trees). They have been developed according to the methodology proposed by Montero et al. (2005).
Moreover, the study will analyse the Fagus sylvatica biomass estimation obtained from the application of both methodologies to the forest inventory data of the Burguete Forests (Management Plan, Ingeniería y Gestión Mediambiental, S.L., 2006).

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A critical analysis of different approaches to evaluate carbon stock at a regional level, on pure and mixed stands, using BEFs

Teresa Fidalgo Fonseca1, Domingos Mendes Lopes1, Luís Roxo Almeida1, Carlos Pacheco Marques1, Diana Feliciano2, Américo Mendes2
1. Forestry Department, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
2.Portuguese Catholic University, Portugal

Carbon stock evaluation on forested areas, for which dendrometric data expressed in volume units is available, can be indirectly assessed throughout conversion factors. One of the approaches that have been advocate for testing purposes, at national and regional level, requires, at a first stage, the use of biomass expansion factors (BEF) to convert volume data into dry biomass. In order to get consistent estimates of dry biomass, the BEF needs, however, to be reliable and to give consistent results. Other suggested approach uses tree allometric equations to directly estimate dry biomass from tree characteristics.
Using the dry biomass values, carbon stock of a stand or a tree is easily estimated using conversion factors (e.g. 0.50), even if the conversion is not completely accurate.
This study aims to compare the adequacy of different methodologies which have been proposed for evaluation in FORSEE project to obtain dry biomass estimates at regional level. Case study reports to the pilot region Sousa Valley (North Portugal) on pure and mixed stands of Eucalyptus globulus Labill and Pinus pinaster Ait.. Quantitative comparisons were made between a subsequent conversion of volume data on dry biomass and a directly estimation of dry biomass through previous available equations. Critical remarks are presented for the suggested methodologies.

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A contribution for an accurate estimation of carbon sequestration in North of Portugal's forests

Domingos Mendes Lopes1, Virgínia Moreira1, Teresa Fidalgo Fonseca,1, Luís Roxo Almeida1, Carlos Pacheco Marques1, Diana Feliciano2, Américo Mendes2
1.Forestry Department, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal
2.ortuguese Catholic University, Portugal

Climate change has increased human concerns and future scenarios and implementation of mitigation measures. In this context an accurate evaluation of the carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems is a key problem for a wide range of ecological studies. Having not yet an accurately knowledge of carbon fixation by forest in north Portugal as well as the existing carbon stock, this study tries to give some clues about that potential. The main goal of this study is to quantify the error on estimates of actual carbon stock when assuming the theoretical value of 50%, of carbon per kilogram of dry biomass, or the real value, obtained for each study area from chemical analysis. Samples were collected from stem, leaves and branches, from average trees, but also samples of shrubs, from 33 sampling plots established in Sousa Valley. These were pure stands of Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus and also mixed stands with these two species. As the total biomass was obtained by the sum of partial measurements of each ecosystem element (crop and stem of the arboreal component, and also the shrubs components) actual stock was later evaluated. The results showed that the levels of carbon in Sousa Valley ecosystems were generally above 50%, meaning that it is greater than the average value assumed by a great number of references. That way the amount of sequestered carbon was also different when it was calculated with the real values./p>

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Estimating Carbon Stocks in Young Conifer Plantations Afforested on Blanket Peat in the West of Ireland

Carly Greena, Brian Tobinb, Marina Conwayc, and Edward P Farrella
aForest Ecosystem Research Group, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin
bSchool of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin
cWestern Forestry Co-Op, ICOS House, Finisklin Road, Sligo

Under the terms of the Kyoto Protocol carbon (C) stocks and stock changes in forests planted since 1990 can be used to offset emissions reported in national greenhouse gas inventories. Such estimates are generally based on national forest inventory (NFI) measurements to which biomass expansion factors (BEFs) or biomass functions (BFs) are applied, depending on the information collected. Developing carbon stock estimates for young (post 1990) forests can be problematic as trees can be less than merchantable timber volume, resulting in conventional NFI parameters, such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or tree height generally not being recorded.
In Ireland however, due to the significance of the post 1990 forest resource, tree height  measurement is extended to young stands of diameter < 7 cm DBH being recorded. To utilise this information, biomass functions relating average tree height to tree biomass were developed for the two most common species planted in the west of the country, Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis. NFI data was used in conjunction with the developed biomass functions to estimate C stocks on the above and belowground biomass pools.
To estimate the total C stock change for the young stands, default values and national specific values, where available, were used to estimate emissions form the soil, litter and deadwood pools. Tree growth was modelled using a site index approach developed from the first NFI plot data that was used to develop a tree height time series, to which the developed biomass functions were applied.
For typical growth conditions in the region, the forest plantation became a net annual sink of C five years following planting. However regional variations in site growth rates mean that the sites could be sources for as little as three years or as long as 34 years. Emissions from peat soils are the major contributor to the net C stock change in the early years of establishment. Significant research on C cycling in peatland forests is required to improve these estimates and to ensure that good practice reporting to the Kyoto Protocol is achieved.

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Session 4 : Indicators for socio economic functions

An integrated approach of forest accounts in order to generate indicators of sustainable management

Jean-Luc Peyron, ECOFOR, France

In the socioeconomic sphere, the best known indicator of a yearly activity and the corresponding flow of wealth is the gross domestic product (GDP). This indicator is the result of a whole nation-wide accounting system. The fact is that the existence of forest accounts, conceived in an integrated economic and environmental view, elaborated according to international rules, could help in order to publish indicators of sustainable forest management and to compare them from one region to another, from one period of time to another.
This idea was at the origin of a French participation to a European task force in order to exchange about the possible formulation of such accounts. It was also at the root of a project financed by Eurostat and aimed at adding some missing data in the field of environmental and social issues. The main idea was to value, at least in physical terms but also, if possible, in monetary units, forest recreation, the conservation of biodiversity, the importance of mushrooms and berry picking and also game hunting, among others.
A survey has been organised in 2002 at the national level with 2575 households selected according to a systematic sample in the telephone directory. Telephone calls have been carried out with the help of about thirty forest students.
This survey allowed estimating the quantity of fuelwood used by households, of mushrooms and berries picked, of game killed. Also the willingness to pay in order to avoid losses of biodiversity was estimated. As for recreation, the importance of forest among leisure places in general has been studied. The number of visits each year, the number of people concerned, the travel distance, and the time length of forest visits have been estimated. Finally, these forest visits have been valued. From that survey, socioeconomic indicators of sustainable forest management can be derived.

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Threshold Price as Economic Indicator for Sustainable Forest Management

Atsushi Yoshimoto1 and Kiyoshi Yukutake2
1 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
2 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan

Recent debates on sustainable forest management result from multifold functions of forest resources to the public. These functions become effective only if forest resources are under suitable management. During the last decade in Japan, however we have observed that some private forest owners have given up or postponed their forestry practices mainly because of an unfavorable price trend of timber products at the current. For such a situation, if we were able to predict a range of price where forest owners can sustain the forest management, it could be possible to lead forest owners to achieve sustainability of forest resource management with the use of some policy measure, e.g. the price support policy commonly applied to agricultural policy. It could be enough to fill the gap between the market price and the derived minimum threshold price, when the market price turns to be lower than the allowable price range for the management. As a result, this threshold price can be used as an economic indicator for sustainable forest management.
This paper applies an option approach to search for the threshold price toward the sustainable forest stand management under log price stochasticity. A stochastic model for log price dynamics is provided with use of geometric Brownian motion as well as a variant of mean-reverting process, in which the drift term is a linear function of price and the volatility term is a function of price as in that of geometric Brownian motion. By approximating the stochastic models by the binomial process, we construct a stochastic control model for forest stand management. The proposed control model is to select an optimal decision from three controls, "Harvest-Plantation", "Harvest-Abandon", and "Wait for Harvesting" under price stochasticity. The forest stand growth is derived from the stand density management diagram in the Kyushu region, following the standard forestry practice manual. Letting xt be log price at time t, geometric Brownian motion in the first model is expressed by, where Bt is a standard Brownian motion, and α and σ are coefficients. In the second model, the following mean-reverting stochastic differential equation with β as an additional parameter is used.
Two proposed stochastic control models consist of binomial approximation of the corresponding stochastic process to discretize the process and stochastic dynamic programming to search for an optimal management regime. Discritization is to adjust the given continuous price dynamics to the discrete optimization framework by stochastic dynamic programming.
Parameter estimation is completed by the quasi-maximum likelihood method with applying the local linearization technique to the above continuous stochastic differential equation. Simulation analysis is conducted to investigate how the minimum threshold price level changes along with other management and growth factors under different settings for stochastic prices. All results will be presented.

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Improvement of forest employment assessment in Aquitaine

S. Drouineau, et al., CRPF Aquitaine, France

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Agricole census as source of information for forest socioeconomy

E. Arrieta et al., Spain

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Contributions to the estimation of the social economic importance of Forests Sousa’s Valley

A Mendes et al., UCP, Portugal

Methods to assess aesthetic value for forest planning and design

T. Panagopoulos1 and B. Ramos2
1.Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Natural Recourses, University of Algarve, 8000 Faro, Portugal,  email: tpanago@ualg.pt
2. VERDESIGN, Arquitectura Paisagista e Consultoria Ambiental, Lda., 8100 Loule, Portugal,  email: bibianaramos@mail.telepac.pt

In forest planning little research devoted to examine how visual impact assessment may improve the public acceptance of forest activities. Forest managers, environmental specialists, governmental agencies and non-profit environmental organizations are interested in scientifically based tools to assist in landscape evaluation. Aesthetic expectations ought to be considered in a thoughtful design. The aesthetics, as a complex subject has been a topic of debate for philosophers, artists and architects since at least the time of Socrates. Meanwhile, the idea of beautiful in landscapes has changed during the history of civilization.There is a great sense of beauty to be obtained if the scene expresses what we call the “idea”, the essence of the place, or its spirit (Genius loci). Landscapes are experienced by people as places which are more than a physical piece of land. Location becomes place through the meanings it is given by people who interact with it over a period, consequently, forest managers who apply sustainable forestry create places by giving them meaning.
Objective of the present work is to review the methods of aesthetic assessment of forest landscapes, which will help the implementation of visual impact assessment in sustainable forestry. Numerous techniques of landscape evaluation have been devised in recent years which may be subdivided by several ways, for this review the techniques will be split into direct and indirect.
The expert approach technique has dominated in environmental management practice and the perception-based approach has dominated in research. Both approaches generally accept that landscape quality derives from an interaction between biophysical features of the landscape and perceptual processes of the human viewer. The approaches differ in the relative importance of the landscape and the human viewer components and have been dominant in environmental management practice. Psychophysical preference modelling is one of the quantitative holistic techniques of landscape evaluation which mix subjective and objective methods. The psychophysical approach provides a more appropriate balance between biophysical and human perception components for an operationally delimited landscape quality assessment system.
The indirect landscape aesthetic evaluation methods are used manly from environmental economists and the most important are the hedonic price method, the contingent valuation technique and the travel cost method. The first is a way of scoring landscape components by measuring the willingness to pay to live in a particular type of landscape. The second is valuing landscapes as entity and takes into consideration benefits that could arise at some time in the future. The third uses a sample of visitors to a site and asks them questions about journey costs and their socioeconomic characteristics.
This study suggests continuing investigation on techniques that will help to estimate objectively public perception of aesthetic quality and forest sustainability and on validation of those. Also, suggests to start research in the use of statistical tools such as geostatistics and principle component analysis, to assist in the discovery of appropriate criteria and indicators of ecological change that identify where the relationships to aesthetic occur.

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Session 5 : Indicators for ecosystem health

Sampling intensity for sustainability indicators evaluation at regional level

 Sónia P. Faias1, Paulo Morais2, Margarida Tomé1, Fernando Páscoa2, Raul Salas2
1 Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Lisboa, PORTUGAL
2 Escola Superior Agrária, Departamento Florestal, Coimbra, PORTUGAL

One of the objectives of the Portuguese National Forest Inventory (PNFI) is to provide information on sustainable forest management indicators at country level. One question of interest is to investigate if the sampling intensity used in the PNFI (1 plot per 400 ha) is enough to provide reliable estimates of sustainable forest management indicators at regional level. Data collected under the FORSEE project will be used in order to give some insight into this question. The study focused all the indicators that are usually obtained through the measurement of field plots: volume and carbon stocks in trees and understory, forest health.

Wet-Health: A technique for rapidly assessing wetland health

Macfarlane, D.M1; Kotze, DC2; Ellery, WN2; Walters, D3; Koopman, V3; Goodman, P4 and Goge, C5
1. SHEQ Manager, Sappi Forests (Pty) Ltd. 
2.University of KwaZulu-Natal
3.Mondi Wetlands Project
4.Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife
5.Working for Wetlands

Wetlands are extremely important systems, providing habitat for important wildlife and a range of goods and services such as flood attenuation, consistent water supply and sediment trapping to society. Historically many wetland areas in South Africa were drained and established to commercial plantation species. With the growing recognition of the importance of these ecosystems, South African forestry companies have begun withdrawing trees from these sensitive areas and reclaiming lost wetland habitat.
WET-Health is a tool designed to help managers assess the health or integrity of a wetland and identify appropriate interventions to ensure successful rehabilitation. Three modules have been developed to assess various aspect of wetland condition, including:     

Each of these modules follows a broadly similar approach which aims to evaluate the extent to which anthropogenic changes have impacted wetland functioning or condition. Impacts are identified and scored in a structured fashion to obtain an overall health score which reflects the current health of each wetland component. This approach not only provides an indication of health across a suite of wetland characteristics, but also highlights the key causes of wetland degradation. This technique is therefore not only useful in reporting on current condition but is also designed to both direct and monitor the effects of management interventions on wetland habitats.

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Stands parameters as indicators of crown condition for sustainable forest management in pine stands from Northen Spain

Sanz-Ros, A. V., Diez, J. J.
Laboratory of Entomology and Forest Pathology. E.T.S. Ingenierías Agrarias. Avda. Madrid 44, 34004. Palencia. E-mail: tonisanz@pvs.uva.es

The European Programme for the Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems has been carried out through the whole of continent since 1986. In this Programme, the degree of defoliation or crown density has been assessed to evaluate the condition of trees. This involves a visual estimation of the amount of light passing through the crown relative to full foliage of the tree. The crown transparency of the tree is estimated by this not accurate method. There are a wide range of factors that could be influencing this defoliation process, such as pest and diseases, climate, soil parameters and forest management. In this study many of these parameters were evaluated looking for a relationship among them and the defoliation values.
Crown transparency was estimated after The Pan-European Programme for the Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems, Level I, in 69 plots from the National Forest Inventory (36 covered by Pinus sylvestris,  26 by P. nigra and  7 by P. pinaster). All plots were located in Palencia province (Castile and Leon, Spain), and were chosen from a systematic grid of 2 x 2 Km. All soil types and pine species were represented. Soil samples were taken in 31 of these plots (15 P. sylvestris, 13 P. nigra y 4 P. pinaster) and some parameters were analysed following the FORSEE Project methodology. Climate data were obtained from Digital Climatic Atlas of The Iberian Peninsula. With the aim of reducing the number of variables a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was done. The axes were rotated by varimax criterion.
The PCA analysis revealed tree axes well defined. The first was related with the structure of the stand, the second with the climate and the third with productive parameters. The most explaining stand variables were Basimetric area, Annual rainfall, Minimum temperatures, Hart-Becking Index and Mean Diameter. With the aim to obtain a model that could explain the management variables that had been influencing on defoliation, a Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression was carried out. All the combinations of these variables were tested in the model besides two categorical ones, such as thining/ no thinning, and plot main species. The regression model obtained was significant (p<0.001) and explains 38.7 % of defoliation factor with only five variables (3 continuous and 2 categorical). The not predicted variation in the model could be due to other non-controlled factors such as air deposition of pollutants, water contamination, as well as the subjectivity of visual estimation.

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Hemispherical photography versus visual estimation for crown monitoring of pine stands

Sanz-Ros, A. V.1, Valladares, F.2, Diez, J. J.1
1.   Laboratory of Entomology and Forest Pathology. E.T.S. Ingenierías Agrarias. Avda. Madrid 44, 34004. Palencia. E-mail: tonisanz@pvs.uva.es
2.    Institute of Natural Resources. Centre of Environmental Sciences –CSIC. C/Serrano 115. E-28006 Madrid, Spain.

Health status was one of the main criteria chosen for monitoring forest stands in several Pan-European Processes meetings (e.g. Rio, 1992; Helsinki, 1993; Montreal, 2003). There is a wide range of pests and diseases influencing forest health, besides climatic, environmental and management factors that determine crown development of forests.  Visual methods are widely used to estimate crown development , used as indicator of forest health, but bias may arise due to both the subjectivity of the person who estimates and to time variation in the estimation. Therefore, indirect but more objective methods, such as hemispherical photography, could overcome these limitations.
Crown condition in this study was estimated following The Pan-European Programme for the Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems, Level I, in 69 plots from the National Forest Inventory (36 covered by Pinus sylvestris,  26 by P. nigra and  7 by P. pinaster). All plots were located in Palencia province (Castile and Leon, Spain), and were chosen from a systematic grid of 2 x 2 Km. In 29 of these plots (12 Pinus sylvestris,  13 P. nigra and  4 P. pinaster), hemispherical photographs were taken (1 photograph/25 m) with a Nikon 4500 Coolpix camera and a fisheye converter lens Nikon Fc-E9. Photographs were always taken at dawn and that the camera was held in a tripod at one meter from the soil surface, levelled vertically to the zenith and north orientated.
Photograph analysis was done with two different software: Gap light Analyzer (GLA) and Hemiview® (HV), and results from the two were compared. These results were correlated to visual defoliation values to assess the suitability and accuracy of this technique to measure crown transparency or defoliation. GLA analysis showed a significant correlation (p-value< 0,001)  between plot Leaf Area Index (LAI) and plot defoliation. The model obtained was a reciprocal-x (Y= A + B/X), with R-squared of 54,06 %. The residuals followed a normal distribution and their standard error was 4,1517. In the other hand, Hemiview analysis showed a significant  correlation (p-value = 0,001) between LAI and visual estimated plot defoliation. The model was a reciprocal-x one (Y= A + B/X), with R-squared of 48,96 %. The residuals followed a normal distribution and their standard error was 4,3762. Results from the two softwares showed that there was a strongly significant (p-value< 0,001) linear correlation between them, with R-squared of  78,5 %. The standard error of the residuals was 0,177.
These results showed that hemispherical photography can be a useful and objective tool to evaluate crown condition, and that different software render similarly good results. Certain parameters (i.e. photograph size, pre-processing, distance between photographs and species composition) must be, however, harmonized to render comparable results.

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Can we standardise sampling strategies to document forest health indicators in cultivated forests?

H. Jactel, (INRA), C. Orazio (IEFC), J-C. Samalens (INRA), M. Conway (Western forestry coop), C. Travers (GAVRN), I. Primicia (GAVRN), A. Cantero (IKT), D. Feliciano (UCP), J. Diez (UVall), et al.

To monitor forest health on large areas is still challenging. The International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests published in 2004 an updated manual with a precise protocol for forest health assessment. This protocol has been used as reference tool to assess forest health indicator in the pilot zones of the FORSEE Project on plot of 80 trees (4*(20 trees)). Taking advantage of the large range of forest stand and ecological context provided by the network of FORSEE, we tested the feasibility, the robustness and the cost of this improved protocol providing much more information about damages than crown condition. We also took advantage of this work to identify the sensitivity of this method: how many trees are required to detect all the damages in a stand? And also test the subplot effect: how many sub-plots of 20 trees do we need to have a good assessment of damages severity?

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Session 6 : Indicators for protective functions

Quantifying protective effects of forests and need of protection forest management – general ideas and application based on data of 3rd Swiss National Forest Inventory

P. Duc and U.B.Brändli
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf, Switzerland

All forest functions (protection, production, leisure, biodiversity/nature conservation) are considered equal in Swiss Forest Law. Swiss forest politics focuses on maintaining stable protection forests and on conserving biodiversity. Therefore, Swiss National Forest Inventory (CH-NFI) is expected to deliver data on stability of protection forests and their protective effects as an important base of forest policy.
On a European level, the criterion “protective functions” was restricted to the protection of water resources and soil by the experts of the Ministerial Conference of the Protection of Forests in Europe for many years. In the alpine space, protection of infrastructure against natural hazards, especially avalanches and rockfall, is at least as important as the protection of water and soil. At the Expert Level Meeting in Vienna in 2002, the area of forest and other wooded land designated to protect infrastructure against natural hazards was included in the set of criteria and indicators.
Standards for the state of protection forests and for the protection forest management were developed by mountain forest experts on request of the Federal Office for the Environment BAFU ten years ago (Wasser&Frehner 1996). These standards could only partly be considered in the evaluation of protection forests by the second NFI because of differences in terminology, poor accuracy of indicators, inaccurate model data and missing NFI-data. Meanwhile, the standards of protection forest management have been revised (Frehner, Wasser & Schwitter 2005), and the procedures for quantifying the protective effects of Swiss forests as well as the need of protection forest management based on data of NFI are being developed in collaboration of Swiss NFI, BAFU and mountain forest experts.
The protective effect of forests are quantified by comparing the most important indicators (gap length, cover, density) with the defined standards. Gap length is not assessed in the field, but should be derived automatically on the base of aerial photographs or data of laserscan.
The need of forest management mainly depends on stability properties and the natural development of protection forests. Mixture, structure, stand stability and regeneration are considered to be the most important indicators, the valuation is depending on site class.
The speech will focus on the need of basics, the possibilities and the limitations of quantifying protective effects of forests based on data of a nationwide sampling survey and other data source. Furthermore, the gaps and uncertainties of the approach will be outlined and the needs of a future monitoring of protection forests will be presented.

Estimation of the amount of C sequestered in the soil in the FORSEE pilot zone in Galicia

F. Solla-Gullón, D. López-Méndez, P. Álvarez-Álvarez, , R. Rodriguez-Soalleiro, A. Merino
Unidad de Gestión Forestal Sostenible, Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo, Spain

An increase in C in forest biomass does not necessarily signify that a plantation stores C, as it is possible that gains in trees will correspond to losses from soils and, in this case the balance of sequestration will not be positive. It is therefore important to quantify the changes in C in soil, as net changes are more important than changes in biomass and soils may act as high capacity sinks for C (see, e.g. Lal, 1995, 1998).
The aim of the present study was to make a preliminary evaluation of the amount of carbon sequestered in the different types of soil in the FORSEE pilot zone in Galicia. This mainly involved examination of maps of soil use, geological maps and soil maps.
The soils containing most carbon are those developed on basic rocks and on slates, phyllites and sedimentary material. Low carbon contents were noted in soils in areas in which the soil has been degraded by erosion and in which shallow soils (Leptosols) predominate. In the pilot zone, the mean value of the C content in the soils is 139 Mg C ha-1, which is slightly lower than that observed for the whole region (150 Mg C ha-1, Macias et al., 2001). Non cultivated forest soils, which constitute 71.3% of the pilot zone, represent approximately 98.5% of the C accumulated in the soils.

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Soil organic matter structure and dynamics in adjacent seminatural and commercial forests

Nahia Gartzia Bengoetxea1, Ander González-Arias1 Agustín Merino2 & Inazio Martínez de Arano1.
1 NEIKER-Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development, Forestry Unit, Berreaga 1, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia. 2 Escola Politécnica Superior, Dpto. Edafología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo.

The area covered by broadleaved autochthonous species has been reduced by the spread of rapid growth exotic species. In the Basque Country, most of the remaining Quercus robur forests and Fagus sylvatica forests have been managed coppiced or pollarded until mid 40s for charcoal production. Radiata pine plantations, which nowadays cover 60% of forested surface, are harvested every 35-40 years and after clear-felling, heavy machinery has been used for site preparation (down-slope subsoiling) since 1980s. These different forest managements differ mainly in organic matter inputs to soil and in the level of soil physical disturbance, two ecosystem properties most likely linked to soil health.
To study the extent of the impact of different forest managements on soil microbial community dynamics and on the ability of the soil to act as a carbon sink, 5 different and adjacent stands - 3 Pinus radiata plantations (adult, young and recently planted), 1 adult Quercus robur stand and 1 adult Fagus sylvatica plantation - were sampled. Three intact samples of forest floor (FF) were sampled, divided into LF and H layers and kept fresh. Three soil samples from the first 5 cm were collected at random, dried (4ºC) and sieved to determine the mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates. Carbon contents were determined in each aggregate size. Fresh forest floors and soil aggregates (20mm - 53μm) at 60% of water-holding capacity were incubated at 30ºC for 28 days and the evolved CO2 measured. Microbial biomass carbon was determined by chloroform-fumigation extraction method in three aggregate sizes.
Mean rates of basal respiration ranged from 38.9 and 41.9 g C-CO2 g-1 FF h-1 in LF-layer forest floors from beech and oak forests, to 96.9 and 98.8 g C-CO2 g-1 FF h-1 in forest floors from young and old pine plantations. However, there was no significant difference in H-layer forest floor. It was remarkable the absence of forest floor in the recently planted forest. MWD from broadleaved forests was higher than that of aggregates from exotic species. The recently planted forest had significantly lower mean aggregate size. Concentration of carbon in aggregate sizes differed among forest stands; the recently planted plantation showed significantly higher content of carbon (16 mg C g-1 soil) in the 0.25-2 mm aggregate size than those concentrations of native forests in the same aggregate size, 6.1 and 7.3 mg C g-1 soil in oak and beech forests respectively. Moreover, basal respiration rates were also highest in the smallest aggregate size ranging from 1.4 and 3.5 g C-CO2 g-1 soil for recently planted and young plantation to 4.0, 5,7 and 6.8 g C-CO2 g-1 soil h-1 for oak, old pine and beech forests. However, the metabolic quotient (qCO2) of the microbial community in mature forests was higher than that corresponding to the young and recently planted pine forests, for all sizes of aggregate. Microbial communities in mature forests were less efficient in C utilization probably due to the abundance of available C that decreased competition among microbial populations.
Species change may have an important impact on the organic matter structure and dynamics as the evolved CO2 was highest from the pine forest floors, probably influenced by the availability and biochemical composition of litter; mechanized forest operations may reduce the ability of soils to act as a carbon sink as they influenced a shift in aggregate distribution to smaller aggregate sizes, those evolving more CO2.

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Forest management induced erosion estimated with the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model.

Inazio Martínez de Arano1 Nahia Gartzia-Bengoetxea1, Ander González-Arias11. Forestry Unit, NEIKER Basque Institute for Agrarian Research and Development. Berreaga, 1 48160 Derio, Bizkaia.

The Ibaizabal basin (48.000 ha) has a forest cover of over 50% mainly composed of Radiata pine commercial plantations, managed in a clear-cut regime with a rotation length of around 35 years. Harvest, skiding and mechanical site preparation are key aspects of the management regime. Timber harvesting and site preparation are major management practices that can remove vegetation cover and disturb litter and soil organic layers exposing underlying mineral soil. This increases the erosion risk. Erosion and sediment production can have long-term impacts on site productivity, fish habitat, reservoir storage capacity, and domestic water. This paper describes the implementation of the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model proposed by Mitasova et al. [1996] at the Ibaizabal basin. USPED predicts the spatial distribution of erosion and deposition rates assuming transport limited erosion. The method is based on a detailed terrain analysis performed on a 10 m grid DEM. Soil detachment calculation is similar to USLE and includes an evaluation of the common K and C factors. Net Erosion deposition is based on the spatial variation of transport capacity. Discriminant analysis on 1500 georeferenced soil samples was used to estimate needed soil parameters for all combinations of lithology group, vegetation type and altitudinal range. Forest type was obtained through reclassification of the 3thr National Forest Inventory map (2005). Current forest management regime was derived form management plans and Forest Service regulations. Harvest, logging and site preparation effects on K and C factors were modelized based on available data. Management induced erosion was estimated as the ratio between model outputs for current management regimes and for a Best Management Practices scenario. Model outputs were analyzed for each 19 sub basins. Current annual Soil detachment ranges form 0 to 244 ton/ha/yr, which reflects overall high erosion risk due to slope steepness and rain erosivity Overall means are 1.9 tn/ha/yt for commercial plantations and 0.2 for seminatual forests. Better management practices could reduce soil detachment from 50% to 20% of their current values. Erosion deposition balance shows net soil exports for all sub basins in the range of 0,1 to 1,3 tons/ha/yr. The model estimates that 45-75% of this sediment exports can be attributed to suboptimal management options. While proper calibration of the model is needed for quantitative assessment, at its current stage USPED provides a powerful tool to explore impacts of management and forest planning decisions on soil loss and net sediment production.


Effect of tree species on soil community level physiological profiles

Nahia Gartzia Bengoetxea1, Ander González-Arias1 & Inazio Martínez de Arano1.
1 NEIKER-Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development, Forestry Unit,

Functioning of the soil microbial community is mainly linked to the quantity and quality of soil organic matter, and this is influenced by the availability and biochemical composition of litter from the dominant tree species and root exudates. However, little is known about the degree to which soil microbial communities differ in soils under different tree species and different management.
The study was focused in Ibaizabal basin covering mixed broadleaved forests and intensively managed plantations that had been divided into stands dominated by decidious species, particularly Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus ilex, and stands dominated by coniferous trees, mainly Pinus radiata differing in age and silvicultural history. 61 plots were sampled following a quadratic grid where forest floor and two soil depths were sampled, 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm. Forest floors were analyzed for standard chemicals, water extractable carbohydrates and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents.
Community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were performed in soil samples using MicroRespTM to measure the utilization of a variety of carbon substrates that were selected based on ecological relevance to soil. The carbon sources included in the assay were 2 sugars, 2 aminas, 4 amino acids, 5 carboxilic acids,1 phenolic acid and inorganic P.
The fibre contents varied little among stands and ranged from 31,5 to 34,6 % for lignin, and from 19 to 21 % for cellulose. The C/N ratios neither differed significantly with tree species, however the highest mean of 40 was found in pine stands and beech forests showed an overall mean of 35. However, significant differences were found in nutrient concentrations; phosphorous concentrations were highest in beech forests and lowest in Q. ilex forests. Q. robur differed significantly in magnesium content. Lignin/N ratios were very similar in oak and pine forests and were higher than in holm oak and beech forests.
Principal component analysis was performed on all CLPP data simultaneously and the first two factors explained 49% and 17% of the total variance, respectively. Factor 1 was dominated by carboxilic acids, mainly by citric acid and succinic acid and was different between tree species (P < 0,15), probably due to differences in biochemical composition of litter. Factor 2 was dominated by sugars and aminas, such as D-fructose and N-acetyl-glucosamine and differentiated the soil catabolic responses from 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm depths, indicating lower availability of labile substrates in deeper horizons. The response of microbial communities to these substrates was not related to soil parent material, despite of the wide range of lithologies encountered. Litter from different tree species differed in nutrient concentrations and these differences may be reflected in the C utilization patterns of soil microbial communities.

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Soil penetration resistance as a critical indicator for sustainable forest management: Modelling approaches for minimizing disturbance

Daniel J. Vega-Nieva 1, Mark Castonguay 2, Jae Ogilvie 2, Paul A. Arp 2.
1.University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
2. .Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. Canada.

Soil disturbances such as soil rutting, compaction and erosion can be considerable hazards for cultivated forests sustainability and represent an important concern for the implementation of best forest management practices. These disturbances can reduce seedling and tree growth, decrease early regeneration, interfere with soil drainage, may cause water logging, change soil structure, affect water quality, and they may persist for decades. Remediation procedures are generally expensive. Undesired machine immobilization and greater damage can occur as a result of conducting operations when soil conditions are not suitable for forest trafficking.
Soil penetration resistance, as measured with a cone penetrometer, constitutes an useful indicator of soil trafficability, which can be related to exerted machine pressure, allowing to monitor and prevent compaction and rut formation hazard. The consideration of the effects of soil moisture regimes and soil type on disturbance hazard and likely rutting depth can lead to better forest practices which minimize the impacts on soil and water resources and future forest productivity. Implications of trafficability modelling tools for sustainable forest operations monitoring and planning will be discussed in this presentation.