25/03/2018    Christophe Orazio.


Site code AR38

Location Furnas civil Parish

Region Azores

Country Portugal

Local name Pasto dos Trevos



medium drainage

Short History of the site

This site would initially be covered with natural forest, which was later removed, and heavy machinery eliminated its preexistent microtopography for pastureland, therefore creating erosion problems due to the concentration of water across the pasture. This pasture was part of a semi-intensive dairy farm with heavy fertilizations for the past three decades. At the lower part of the pasture there was also a concrete construction where the cattle was milked and feed. This concentration resulted in a large degradation of part of the pasture, which needed to be avoided, not to influence the arboretum results. After purchasing the area, from privates, to implement Furnas Lake watershed basin ecological restoration, cows were removed, fertilizations completely stopped, all litter cleaned up and part of the cow dung was also removed. There was a control of invasive species in the center (ex. rumex) and borders (ex. rubus, etc…) of the parcel, which was only mildly invaded. Afterwards the entire pasture was seeded with a flowering meadow, where clovers where the dominant species, in order to experiment phosphorous removal from the soil and sustainably increase grass yields. This site was chosen due to its large extension and possibility to increase the arboretum in the future, and its deep rich soils. It also assures a reasonably easy accessibility due to its proximity to a dirt road. Later the pastureland was planted with the Reinfforce arboreta, therefore integrating Furnas Landscape Laboratory. Each provenance counts with 50 plants, on a compass of 3×4 m. Permission to make use new forestry species was conceded by the Regional Directorate for Nature Conservation, and reconfirmed by the regional director of environment.

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Generalities of the site
Species on the site N of Prov. Initial tree N
Calocedrus decurrens 3 144
Castanea sativa 5 240
Cedrus libani subsp. libani 3 144
Ceratonia siliqua 3 144
Cunninghamia lanceolata 3 144
Cupressus sempervirens 3 144
Eucalyptus globulus 1 48
Eucalyptus gundal 1 48
Eucalyptus nitens 2 96
Fagus sylvatica 3 144
Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis 3 144
Larix decidua 4 192
Liquidambar styraciflua 4 192
Pinus brutia 3 144
Pinus elliottii 2 96
Pinus nigra subsp. laricio 2 96
Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii 1 48
Pinus peuce 1 48
Pinus pinea 4 192
Pinus ponderosa 3 144
Pinus sylvestris 4 192
Pinus taeda 3 144
Pseudotsuga menziesii 5 240
Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia 4 192
Quercus petraea subsp. petraea 4 192
Quercus rubra 2 60
Quercus suber 5 240
Sequoia sempervirens 3 144
Thuja plicata 4 192